Annals of African Medicine
Home About AAM Editorial board Ahead of print Current Issue Archives Instructions Subscribe Contact us Search Reader Login
Export selected to
Reference Manager
Medlars Format
RefWorks Format
BibTex Format
  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2013| July-September  | Volume 12 | Issue 3  
    Online since September 5, 2013

  Archives   Previous Issue   Next Issue   Most popular articles   Most cited articles
Hide all abstracts  Show selected abstracts  Export selected to
  Cited Viewed PDF
Complications associated with Plasmodium vivax malaria: A retrospective study from a tertiary care hospital based in western Uttar Pradesh, India
Imran Rizvi, Devendra Kumar Tripathi, Anjum Mirza Chughtai, Mujahid Beg, Shamsuz Zaman, Noorin Zaidi
July-September 2013, 12(3):155-159
DOI:10.4103/1596-3519.117624  PMID:24005587
Background: Plasmodium vivax (p. vivax) malaria was traditionally considered as benign tertian malaria, however, recent studies have pointed out that p. vivax have potential to cause all severe complications previously attributed to p. falciparum infection only. The aim of this report is to study the incidence of various clinical and biochemical complications associated with severe p. vivax malaria. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on all patients with p. vivax malaria admitted to our center between January 2009 and December 2011. Severe malaria was defined as per World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Clinical and laboratory parameters were recorded. Patients with evidence of p. falciparum, mixed malarial infection and chronic systemic diseases were excluded from the study. Results: Sixty-two patients met the criteria for severe malaria during the study period. The complications observed were Hepatic dysfunction in 18 (29%), renal dysfunction in 13 (21%), cerebral malaria in 10 (16.1%), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in 6 (9.7%), shock in 10 (16.1%), severe anemia in 16 (25.8%), thrombocytopenia in 35 (56.5%), and hypoglycemia in 3 (4.8%) patients. Three mortalities were observed. Conclusions: P. vivax has immense potential to cause life threatening complications and even death, more research is required to understand the exact pathogenesis of various complications encountered in vivax malaria.
  7 4,758 30
A rare coexistence of thyroid lymphoma with papillary thyroid carcinoma
Murat Cakir, Esin Celik, Fatma Betul Tuncer, Ahmet Tekin
July-September 2013, 12(3):188-190
DOI:10.4103/1596-3519.117632  PMID:24005594
Diseases of the thyroid gland are frequently seen in general practice. Lymphoma of the thyroid is one of the rarest tumors. Its coexistence with papillary thyroid carcinoma is even rarer. Here, we present a 50-year-old female patient, who presented to our clinic with complaints of a rapidly growing lump on her neck, aphagia, and shortness of breath. A total thyroidectomy was performed. Histopathological analysis revealed the concomitant existence of papillary tumor. It should be noted that tumors with different histopathological behavior may rarely coexist with lymphoma in the thyroid gland. Masses growing rapidly in the thyroid shall suggest lymphoma.
  3 4,030 14
Problems with administration of international prostate symptom score in a developing community
Edwin Iduh Ogwuche, Nuhu Kutan Dakum, Calistus Okwudili Amu, Ezekiel Dido Dung, Emeka Udeh, Venyir Mamzhi Ramyil
July-September 2013, 12(3):171-173
DOI:10.4103/1596-3519.117628  PMID:24005590
Background: The IPSS form has been found useful for assessing symptom severity, which assists in treatment choice and in monitoring patients on therapy. The form should be self-administered and requires some level of literacy. We assessed the problems associated with its administration in a developing community. Materials and Methods: The IPSS form was administered to patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia at the Urology Clinic of the Jos University Teaching Hospital from November 2004 to October 2005. Those who did not understand the questions or who could not read English required explanations. Result: There were a total of 70 patients who agreed to fill out the forms. Their ages ranged from 40 to 104 years with a mean of 63.6. The IPSS scores ranged from 3 to 35 with a mean of 18.3. About 56.7% of the patients had quality of life scores of ≥ 5. Only 2 (2.9%) patients were initially uncooperative in filling out the forms. Twenty-four (34.3%) did not understand English. Of the 46 (65.7%) that understood English, 28 (40.0%) could speak but could not read English, thus 52 (74.3%) could not read English. Ten (14.3%) patients thought the questions were either not comprehensive or clear enough. Conclusion: Illiteracy is a major drawback with the administration of the IPSS form, with 74.3% of patients unable to read English. Attempts should be made to draft the forms in the main language(s) spoken or read in a particular locality so as to gain maximally from the benefits of the IPSS. Relevant bodies should improve on the education of the populace.
  3 2,863 21
Familial trend in polycystic ovarian syndrome: Report of two cases
NN Joe-kechebelu, SU Mbamara, JI Ikechebelu
July-September 2013, 12(3):182-184
DOI:10.4103/1596-3519.117630  PMID:24005592
Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder with a strong genetic component. The affected females present with anovulatory cycles, a spectrum of menstrual disorders, and features of androgen excess. We present the case of two sisters who were diagnosed with PCOS and have a family history of oligomenorrhoea in their grandmother and PCOS in their mother and sisters. They also have a family history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and breast mass which are known co-morbidities associated with PCOS. Both were managed successfully with ovulation induction using clomiphene citrate. PCOS could be familial as in our patients and further research is required to define the exact genetic pattern of inheritance.
  2 3,948 20
Isolation, identification, and antibiogram of enterococci isolated from patients with urinary tract infection
Jyothi Parameswarappa, V Peerapur Basavaraj, C Metri Basavaraj
July-September 2013, 12(3):176-181
DOI:10.4103/1596-3519.117629  PMID:24005591
Background/objectives: Enterococci, though commensals in adult feces are important nosocomial pathogens. The most common nosocomial infection caused by these organisms is urinary tract infection. Objectives: (1) To isolate and speciate enterococci from cases of urinary tract infection. (2) To know antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the isolates. (3) To determine high level aminoglycoside resistance (HLAR) among the isolates. Methods: Identification and speciation of the isolates were done by the standard conventional methods. Antibacterial susceptibility pattern was determined by standard disc diffusion method and HLAR by using gentamicin (120 μg) and streptomycin (300 μg) discs. Results: A total of 150 strains of enterococci were isolated from a total of 2520 urine samples. Out of 150 strains, 95 (63.3%) were Enterococcus faecalis, 55 (36.7%) were E. faecium. A total of 102 (68%) isolates showed high level resistance to gentamicin and/or streptomycin by high content disc diffusion. Conclusion: Antibiotic sensitivity pattern revealed presence of multidrug resistance in E. faecium as well as E. faecalis and resistance among E. faecium isolates was higher than E. faecalis. HLAR among enterococcal isolates was high in our institute.
  2 8,266 44
Community knowledge and attitude to pulmonary tuberculosis in rural Edo state, Nigeria
Ekaete Alice Tobin, Paul-West Okojie, Essy Clementina Isah
July-September 2013, 12(3):148-154
DOI:10.4103/1596-3519.117623  PMID:24005586
Background: A high level of community awareness and positive perception toward pulmonary TB (PTB) and its management is crucial for the success of any control strategy. This study was carried out to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practice as regard to TB and its treatment. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study involving 193 persons was carried out in a rural community in Ward 5 of Etsako-West local government area of Edo state, selected through a multi-stage sampling process. Results: About 86% of respondents had heard of PTB, with a greater proportion being females (55.7%). Mean knowledge score (16.26±5.8) showed that a greater proportion (55.1%) had poor knowledge (range 0-35), with males having better (though not significant) knowledge than females (mean score 17.28±5.9 and 16.94±5.0, respectively, P=0.68). Although attitude toward TB did not influence caring for sick relatives or friends, it impeded social interactions and marriage prospects with infected persons within the community. Conclusion: Knowledge and attitude toward PTB was generally poor in this rural community. Efforts should be intensified by health authorities in the local government to raise awareness and knowledge of the disease, so as to improve social perception and early recognition of infection.
  2 7,182 25
Corneal ulcers in a tertiary hospital in Northern Nigeria
Kehinde Oladigbolu, Abdulkadir Rafindadi, Emmanuel Abah, Elsie Samaila
July-September 2013, 12(3):165-170
DOI:10.4103/1596-3519.117626  PMID:24005589
Background/Objective: To highlight the pattern of corneal ulcers at the Guinness Ophthalmic Unit, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Kaduna, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of case notes of patients who presented with corneal ulcer at the Guinness Ophthalmic Unit, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital between January 1995 and December 2005. Information obtained include demographic data, presenting complaints, predisposing factors, microbiological diagnosis, use of orthodox or traditional medications before presentation, duration before presentation and, presenting and final visual acuity. Results: A total of 228 cases presented within the 10 years study period. There were 129 (56.6%) males and 99 (43.4%) females. The age range was 15 months to 66 years. The commonest presenting complaints was poor vision 109 (47.8%) followed by lacrimation 97 (42.5%) and ocular pains 96 (42.1%). The common predisposing factors were trauma 117 (51.3%), use of traditional eye medications 39 (17.1%), self medication with topical steroids 13 (5.7%) and measles 9 (4.0%). The presenting visual acuity was <6/60 in 49.8% of the patients, <6/18-6/60 in 23.4%, and 6/6-6/18 in 25.5% of the patients. At discharge, 45.6% had a visual acuity of 6/6-6/18, 27.2% had borderline vision (<6/18-6/60), 18.0% had severe visual impairment (<6/60), while 6.6% had no light perception. The commonest organisms isolated were Staphylococcus aureus in 19.7%, fungal hyphae in 15.8% and Streptococcus pneumoniae in 4.8%. Conclusion: In this study most patients with corneal ulcer presented with poor vision and excessive lacrimation. Trauma was the commonest predisposing factor with bacterial organisms as the commonest isolate.
  1 5,299 21
Sporadic hemiplegic migraine in a Nigerian woman
Owolabi F Lukman
July-September 2013, 12(3):185-187
DOI:10.4103/1596-3519.117631  PMID:24005593
Sporadic hemiplegic migraine (SHM) is a rare form of migraine. I report a 23-year-old Nigerian lady with SHM. She had recurrent attacks characterized by visual aura that progressed to headache, dysphasia, and hemiplegia. Her motor symptom was always followed by development of nausea and photophobia lasting several hours. Computerized tomography of the brain and electroencephalography were normal. She was treated with carbamazepine, aspirin, and codeine. Differential diagnoses of SHM were highlighted.
  - 2,787 12
International Prostate Symptoms Score usage in a developing country
Kasonde Bowa
July-September 2013, 12(3):174-175
  - 1,727 11
"Obesity paradox" or methodologic error
Ali Cevat Tanalp
July-September 2013, 12(3):191-191
DOI:10.4103/1596-3519.117633  PMID:24005595
  - 1,717 9
Response to comments "obesity paradox" or methodologic error
Adebayo Oyedeji
July-September 2013, 12(3):191-192
DOI:10.4103/1596-3519.117634  PMID:24005596
  - 2,022 10
Pattern of asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic at a private health facility in Benin, South-South Nigeria
Aiyebelehin O Alfred, Ike Chiedozie, Duru U Martin
July-September 2013, 12(3):160-164
DOI:10.4103/1596-3519.117625  PMID:24005588
Background/Objective: The objective was to establish the characteristics of antenatal attendees in Faith Medical Centre, a private health facility in Benin City who have asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) as well as to determine the relationship between ASB and socioeconomic status. Methods: It was a descriptive, cross-sectional study involving 240 pregnant women who presented in the course of antenatal care from January to April 2009. With the aid of a questionnaire patients who were recruited for the study had their socio-demographic data and relevant gynecological and drug history recorded. A physical examination was done to document temperature, height, weight and symphysiofundal height. A clean-catch midstream urine sample was collected for microscopy and culture. White blood cell count of≥5/hpf and/or bacteria count of≥1/hpf of urine was considered significant for urine microscopy and a single colony count of ≥105/ml from two consecutive urine samples was considered significant for urine culture. Results: The prevalence of ASB was 13.8% by urine culture and 43.8% by urine microscopy among antenatal attendees in Faith Medical Centre, Benin City. There was no relationship between ASB and socio-economic factor (P value=0.1267). There was also no significant specific trend between ASB and age (P value=0.0578). Using urine culture as gold standard, the sensitivity of urine microscopy was 90.9%, the specificity was 49.3%, the positive predictive value was 22.2% and the negative predictive value was 97.1%. Conclusion: ASB in pregnancy is common in Faith Mediplex and has no statistically significant relationship with socioeconomic status. The current practice of diagnosing and treating ASB based on urine microscopy needs to be reviewed since the specificity of urine microscopy is very low. Also the practice of screening pregnant women only at the time of booking can lead to under-diagnosis of ASB. This is so because most women who develop this condition later in the course of antenatal care will be missed."
  - 3,567 20
Peculiarities of tuberculosis in kidney transplant recipients
Bappa Adamu
July-September 2013, 12(3):143-147
DOI:10.4103/1596-3519.117620  PMID:24005585
Renal transplant is becoming increasingly available in developing countries. Significant advances have been made globally since the first successful kidney transplant in 1954, with the advent of newer, more effective and more selective immunosuppressants. As a result, allograft and patient survival has increased, leaving infection and malignancy as major challenges. The incidence rate of tuberculsis in renal transplant recipients is directly proportional to the prevalence in the general population with the developing countries having the highest rates. The objective of this paper is to review the existing literature on post renal transplant tuberculosis with a view to highlighting its peculiarities compared to tuberculosis in the general population. Several databases (Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane data base, Google Scholar and AJOL) were searched for articles using the key words Tuberculosis (MESH), Renal (OR Kidney), AND transplant. Hand search was also made of reference list of retrieved articles. Full text of relevant original articles were retrieved and appraised. Several studies have demonstrated increased risk of tuberculosis in renal transplant recipients, especially in developing countries. Tuberculosis in renal transplant recipients has peculiarities such as difficulty in diagnosing latent TB, atypical presentations, increased risk of dissemination, increased mortality and interactions of anti-Tb drugs with transplant medications. Clinicians managing renal transplant recipients especially in developing countries should have a high index of suspicion for TB and be aware of its peculiarities in this patient population.
  - 3,818 29