Year : 2009 | Volume
: 8 | Issue : 3 | Page : 147--155
A clinical and epidemiologic update on the interaction between tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus infection in adults
Abdulrazaq G Habib
Department of Medicine, Infectious and Tropical Diseases Unit, Bayero University Kano, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, PMB 3452, Kan, Nigeria
Background : Tuberculosis (TB) is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Africa. The interaction between TB and HIV infections is reviewed.
Methods : Literature on TB, HIV and their co-infection, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, including Nigeria, is reviewed.
Results : Burden of TB is fueled by the HIV epidemic, and clinical presentation of TB may be atypical with co-infection. Recommendations on drugs and timing of antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation are discussed. Use of cotrimoxazole prophylaxis (CPT) in co-infected patients reduces morbidity and mortality, while the principles of TB prevention in HIV infection can be summarized with the three I«SQ»s: intensive TB case finding and surveillance, isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) and infection-control measures; to these can be added a fourth «SQ»I,«SQ» viz., instituting ART. Clinical complications like drug resistance, toxicity and drug interactions; and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) with CPT, IPT and ART are highlighted. Emergence of drug-resistant- and nosocomial- TB in HIV infection poses serious challenges and potential consequences in Africa, and appropriate measures are recommended.
Conclusions : Many barriers exist for optimizing the care of the two diseases, but the aim should be strengthening capacities, collaborations, linkages and eventually integrating the services. Interventions for TB prevention in HIV infection should be widely implemented.
Abdulrazaq G Habib
Infectious and Tropical Diseases Unit, Department of Medicine, Bayero University Kano, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, PMB 3452, Kano
|How to cite this article:|
Habib AG. A clinical and epidemiologic update on the interaction between tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus infection in adults.Ann Afr Med 2009;8:147-155
|How to cite this URL:|
Habib AG. A clinical and epidemiologic update on the interaction between tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus infection in adults. Ann Afr Med [serial online] 2009 [cited 2021 Jun 19 ];8:147-155
Available from: https://www.annalsafrmed.org/article.asp?issn=1596-3519;year=2009;volume=8;issue=3;spage=147;epage=155;aulast=Habib;type=0