Annals of African Medicine
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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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January-March 2021
Volume 20 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-68

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REVIEW ARTICLE  

Helicobacter pylori and association between its positivity and anatomotopographic settlement in the stomach with the host age range p. 1
Tuncer Ozturk, Demet Sengul, Ilker Sengul
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_69_19  PMID:33727504
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a Gram-negative, helically shaped flagellated bacterium. Major diseases associated with H. pylori infection include peptic ulcer, gastric adenocarcinoma, and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. The incidence of H. pylori in the anatomotopographic regions of the stomach, such as antrum, corpus, fundus, and incisura angularis, has been investigated. Do the rates of H. pylori in the settlements change over time according to the age ranges of the hosts? Does this change affect the diseases caused by or related to H. pylori? It is estimated that the outcomes, which have been obtained, may provide a new perspective in terms of understanding the etiopathogenesis of H. pylori-induced diseases. A comprehensive literature search of PubMed/MEDLINE databases had been conducted using a combination of terms, “Helicobacter pylori,” “Sydney System,” “stomach,” “pyloric antrum,” “gastric corpus,” “stomach cancer,” and “Helicobacter pylori and age.” There are very few articles examining the relationship between the topographic locations of H. pylori and host age range in the English language literature. Therefore, it is also purposed to emphasize the outcomes of our current research about the mentioned topic. In our opinion, similar studies should reveal the settlement and age range in the different geographic locations and societies as in our study. We believe that these findings will contribute to the efforts for understanding overtly of H. pylori-induced disease of the stomach.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Prevalence of obesity and associated factors in Benue State, Nigeria: A population-based study Highly accessed article p. 9
Damaris Amarachukwu Osunkwo, Patrick M Nguku, Amina Mohammed, Chukwuma David Umeokonkwo, Moreen Kamateeka, Mohammed Ibrahim, Ibrahim Bekshak Kefas, Oladimeji S Abolade, Hulda Ijeoma Nwokeukwu, Ayuba Ibrahim Zoakah
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_36_19  PMID:33727505
Background: The prevalence of obesity has risen to over 650 million adults in 2016, and accounts for 41 million deaths globally. It is a major contributor to the burden of noncommunicable diseases. We determined the prevalence and associated factors of obesity to inform policy decisions toward developing robust prevention and management strategies. Materials and Methods: We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study in July 2017 among 1265 adults in urban and rural communities in Benue State. We used multistage sampling technique in selecting the participants. The WHO standardized and validated tool were used to collect information on sociodemographic and anthropometric measurements. We calculated age standardized prevalence of obesity and determined factors associated with obesity using logistic regression at 5% level of significance. Results: The age standardized prevalence of obesity was 11.1% (rural 4.2%, urban 14.3%). The odds for obesity was higher among females (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 3.4; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.27–4.99), those with tertiary education (aOR: 3.3; 95% CI: 1.61–6.95), married (aOR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.37–3.36), and those residing in urban areas (aOR: 3.0; 95% CI: 1.73–5.05) compared to rural dwellers. Conclusions: The prevalence of obesity was high among adults in Benue State. It is more prevalent among females, married, educated, and urban dwellers. Interventions targeted at healthy lifestyle choices should be directed at these populations for effective control.
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Spectrum of urological cases in a West African Tertiary Hospital p. 14
Isma’ila Arzika Mungadi, Abdullahi Khalid
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_7_20  PMID:33727506
Context: Urological diseases vary from one geographical location to another worldwide. The knowledge of their distribution in each location could determine local workforce and facility needs and as well guide the areas of subspecialization. Aims: The aim of this study is to document the annual frequency and distribution of urological diseases at the Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional retrospective study from January 2016 to December 2016 of all new patients seen at the urology outpatient clinic, emergency department as well as inpatient referrals from other departments of Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: The relevant records were extracted from the patient's case notes and entered into a semistructured questionnaire. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed using the SPSS software version 20. Results: A total of 607 new patients were seen over the study period. There were 576 (94.9%) males and 31 (5.1%) females, with a male-to-female ratio of 18.6:1. The median age was 45 years, with age range of 1–106 years. Urological emergencies were seen in 35.0% patients. Ninety-one percent of cases were acquired, whereas 8.2% were of congenital etiology. Overall, the most commonly diagnosed urologic diseases among new patients in order of decreasing frequency were benign prostatic enlargement (BPE) (18.6%), bladder tumor (11.8%), upper tract urinary calculi (10.3%), urethral stricture (8.9%), and prostate adenocarcinoma (7.4%). Conclusions: BPE, bladder tumor, upper tract urinary calculi, urethral stricture, and prostate adenocarcinoma are common in our environment. Knowledge of these diseases distribution may guide service expansion and workforce needs, inspire subspecialization as well as direct research and government policy in this community. Nongovernmental organizations wanting to have impact will be suitably directed.
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The profile of autoimmunity in Type 1 diabetes patients p. 19
Sara Derrou, Fayçal El Guendouz, Yousra Benabdelfedil, Imad Chakri, Hassan Ouleghzal, Somaya Safi
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_8_20  PMID:33727507
Background: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disorder caused by pancreatic β-cells destruction. Anti-pancreatic antibodies are the witness of β-cell destruction and their dosage is mainly used for etiological diagnosis. Patients with T1DM are at increased risk of developing other autoimmune reactions, which may involve other organs, resulting in organ specific autoimmune disease. The most frequently encountered are autoimmune thyroid disease, followed by celiac and gastric disease and other rare autoimmune diseases. Objectives: The purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence of autoimmune markers in patients with T1DM. Methods: The study was conducted at the Department of Endocrinology of the Military Hospital Moulay Ismail in Meknes Morocco, from January 2016 to December 2018. All Type 1 diabetes patients consulting during the study period were included in the study. Their clinical and biochemical data were collected at their first presentation, made up of anti-pancreatic antibodies (glutamic acid decarboxylase [GAD] antibody, tyrosine phosphatase antibody, and islet cell antibody) and other organ-specific antibodies: the thyroid (antithyroid peroxidase antibody, antithyroglobulin antibody, and antithyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody), the intestine (IgA antitissue transglutaminase antibody), the adrenal gland (anti-21 hydroxylase antibody), and the stomach (antigastric parietal cell antibody and anti-intrinsic factor antibody). Results: Fifty-four patients were included, with an average age of 26 years. GAD, tyrosine phosphatase, and islet cell antibodies were detected in 74%, 22%, and 3.7%, respectively, of the 54 patients examined. The prevalence of extrapancreatic autoimmunity was 45% with a large preponderance among different immunities of those from thyroid and celiac diseases (CDs). Conclusion: Our results confirm that patients with Type 1 diabetes should be investigated for the presence of autoimmune diseases mainly from thyroid and CDs.
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Awareness and practice of cord blood donation by pregnant women in Lagos Nigeria: Practice implication for future cord blood transplantation in Nigeria p. 24
Sarah Oluwatayo John-Olabode, Kehinde S Okunade, Iwuchukwu O Ajie, Gbenga Olorunfemi, Olufemi A Oyedeji
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_9_20  PMID:33727508
Background: Poor awareness remains a substantial limitation to harnessing the benefits of umbilical cord blood (UCB) in sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of this study was to determine the level of awareness and factors influencing intention to donate cord blood to blood bank among antenatal clinic attendees at a tertiary hospital in Nigeria. Methods: We conducted a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study of 400 women attending the antenatal clinic of a tertiary hospital in Lagos, Nigeria, between February and June 2018. The data were analyzed using Stata version 13; comparisons were conducted with Chi-square, Student's t-test, and Mann–Whitney U-test. Univariable and multivariable binary logistic regression was conducted with “willingness to donate” as the outcome variable. Results: Majority (n = 287/331 [86.2%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 76.4–84.9]) of the participants had some knowledge of UCB, almost half intended future donation of UCB (n = 161/333, [48.3%, 95% CI: 42.9–53.6]). Based on our findings, factors such as religion (P = 0.001), education (P = 0.03), information from health-care provider (P < 0.001) appear to influence awareness, and the decision to donate UCB. Conclusion: Although the awareness of the clinical uses of UCB is very limited in Nigeria, the intent to participate in UCB donation is high. Factors such as religion, education, and prior information about UCB donation by health-care providers have been identified in this study to have an influence on the decision to donate UCB.
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A comparative study of transdermal nitroglycerine patch and oral nifedipine in preterm labor p. 31
Prabhleen Kaur, Anita Madan, Sujata Sharma
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_11_20  PMID:33727509
Background: Currently, the main goal for the use of tocolytic therapy is to delay the birth so as to allow the use of corticosteroids for accelerating fetal lung maturity and maternal transfer to a tertiary care center and thereby reducing neonatal morbidity and mortality. Aims and Objectives: The aims amd objectives were to compare the safety and efficacy of transdermal nitroglycerine patch with oral nifedipine as a tocolytic agent to arrest preterm labor and prevent preterm birth. Materials and Methods: Based on the selection criteria, 50 patients were selected randomly in Group A and Group B. Group A women were given transdermal nitroglycerin patch, which delivered 10 mg Nitroglycerin (NTG) over 24 h and it was applied to the woman's abdomen followed by another patch of 10 mg after 1 h if contractions persisted. After 24 h, it was replaced by a fresh patch. Group B women were given an oral loading dose of nifedipine 20 mg followed by a similar dose if contractions persisted after 1 h. A maintenance dose of 10 mg thrice daily was given if contractions were suppressed. Patients were monitored from the time of admission to the time of discharge. Results: The mean duration of prolongation of pregnancy in Group B (3.68 ± 1.91 days) was significantly more than Group A (2.78 ± 1.39 days). Headache was seen significantly more in Group A (42%) than group B (6%). Tachycardia, hypotension, and palpitation showed no statistically significant difference between them. There was no statistically significant difference in the birth weight of the babies in both the groups. Conclusion: Nifedipine is a safe and effective drug in prolonging preterm labor and has minimal maternal and neonatal side effects.
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Heavy metal content of rice meals sold in a Nigerian market population with a high prevalence of hypertension p. 37
Ralph C Anakwue, Ifeyinwa Dorothy Nnakenyi, Aloysius N Maduforo, Ekenechukwu E Young, Chijioke I Okoli, Chika I Ndiokwelu, Charles C Ezenduka
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_12_20  PMID:33727510
Context: Some market populations in Nigeria have been shown to have high prevalence of hypertension. Current evidence includes environmental pollutants such as heavy metals as risk factors for hypertension. Aim: To study the heavy metal content of rice meals sold in a market population with a high prevalence of hypertension. Settings and Design: This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study conducted in Ogbete market in Enugu, Southeast Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: Five different cooked rice meals were obtained from 25 locations of the market. The rice meals included jollof rice, white rice and tomato stew, fried rice, white rice and vegetable sauce, and white rice and palm oil stew (ofeakwu). Accompanying protein (meat, fish, and egg) and vegetable salad were excluded. Similar rice meals were homogenized and analyzed in triplicates using spectrophotometric methods for mercury, copper, cadmium, lead, and arsenic determination. Statistical Analysis Used: The mean concentrations of the heavy metals were compared using analysis of variance, and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Twenty-five rice dishes were evaluated, five of each kind. Arsenic content ranged from 503 to 550 mg/kg and was comparable across the five rice dishes (P = 0.148). Copper was significantly highest (16767 mg/kg) in the white rice and tomato stew dish (P < 0.001), while mercury was significantly highest (33 mg/kg) in white rice and ofeakwu (P < 0.001). Jollof rice had the highest cadmium content (23 mg/kg), which was statistically significant (P = 0.021). Lead was not found in any of the rice dishes. Conclusions: Risk factors such as heavy metals may play a role in the high prevalence of hypertension observed in market populations, and rice meals may be a major source of these heavy metals.
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Pheochromocytoma and glucoregulation disorders p. 42
Sara Derrou, Toumader Bouziane, Houda Salhi, Hanan El Ouahabi
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_13_20  PMID:33727511
Introduction: Pheochromocytomas are catecholamine-producing tumors presenting with various clinical symptoms and a serious potentially lethal cardiovascular complications due to the potent effects of secreted catecholamines. Glucoregulation disorders could also occur leading to impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus. The aim of our study was to determine the effects of adrenalectomy on patient recovery with regard to their glycemic status. Materials and Methods: Case notes of all patients who underwent adrenalectomy surgery for pheochromocytoma from 2009 to 2018, followed up in the Department of Diabetology, Endocrinology, and Nutrition at University Hospital Center Hassan II of Fez, were retrieved, and data were collected from them to identify those with preoperative diagnosis of glucoregulation disorder and to verify if adrenalectomy can reverse or improve glycemic abnormality. Results: Overall, 23 patients underwent surgery for pheochromocytoma, 26% of cases had diabetes mellitus, whereas 34.78% had glucose intolerance. One year after surgery, diabetes and glucose intolerance were cured in 57.14% of cases. We noticed also that patients with large and symptomatic tumors were more likely to develop preoperative diabetes; it was also more likely to persist in patients who had an elevated body mass index (BMI). Conclusions: In our data, diabetes and glucose intolerance were found concurrently with pheochromocytoma in 60.78% of patients. Thus, it is important for clinicians to screen for glycemic disorder when pheochromocytoma is diagnosed, especially in patients with other risk factors for developing type 2 diabetes such as elevated BMI. Removal of these tumors can reduce insulin secretion and severe peripheral insulin resistance making early diagnosis important.
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Impact of a longitudinal faculty development program on the quality of multiple-choice question item writing in medical education p. 46
Lukman Femi Owolabi, Bappa Adamu, Magaji Garba Taura, Adamu Imam Isa, Abubakar Muhammed Jibo, Reda Abdul-Razek, Mufarrah Muhammed Alharthi, Mushabab Alghamdi
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_14_20  PMID:33727512
Background: Like many other academic programs, medical education is incomplete without a robust assessment plan. Objective: The study aimed to evaluate the impact of longitudinal faculty development program (FDP) on the examination item quality (EIQ) from a cohort of medical college faculty members. Methods: Item analysis (IA) of multiple-choice questions (MCQs) from a cohort of medical tutors over a 3-year period (2017 [S1], 2018 [S2], and 2019 [S3]) before and following once-per-week FDP was conducted. The questions were from three randomly selected courses: man and his environment (MEV) from phase 1, central nervous system (CNS) from phase 2, and internal medicine (MED) from phase 3. Data assessed were 480 MCQs from the final exams in the courses. The parameters considered in IA were the difficulty index, index of discrimination, nonfunctional distractors (NFDs), distractor efficiency for each question item, and Cronbach's alpha (CA) for the test as a whole. Comparison over the 3 years was made using Fisher's exact test and repeated-measures ANOVA with Bonferroni test as post hoc test. Results: Overall, out of 480 MCQs, 272 had no NFD (52 [19.52%], 104 [38.24%], and 116 [42.65%] in 2017, 2018, and 2019, respectively) with a significant difference between S3, S2, and S1 (P < 0.0001). The mean CA for the exams in S1, S2, and S3, respectively, were 0.51, 0.77, and 0.84, P < 0.0001. Conclusion: There was an improvement in EIQ following the implementation of longitudinal FDP. Thus, the need for active training and retraining of the faculty for a better EIQ cannot be overemphasized.
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Outcome of mammography examination in asymptomatic women p. 52
Hadijat Oluseyi Kolade-Yunusa, Ukamaka Dorothy Itanyi
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_17_20  PMID:33727513
Background: Early detection of breast cancer is important in reducing mortality, morbidity, and high socioeconomic burden associated with it. Mammography is currently the primary imaging modality used as a screening tool to detect early breast cancer in women experiencing no symptoms as they are most curable in the early stage with availability of breast conservative therapies. Objective: This study aimed at determining the mammographic breast density patterns and outcome in asymptomatic women who presented for mammographic examination in Abuja. Materials and Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study comprises of 113 asymptomatic women who presented for mammographic examination at the Radiology Department of University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada from March 2015 to December 2018. Two basic views (craniocaudal and mediolateral views) of the breast were obtained using EXR-650 mammographic machine. Results: The mean age of study population was 40.72 ± 10.45 years with age range of 35 and 65 years. Base on mammographic breast density, breast imaging, reporting, and data system 1 and 2 were the most prevalent. There was a positive correlation between mammographic breast density and age of respondents. This relationship was statistically significant (Pearson correlation = 0.56, P = 0.000). The mammographic outcome among asymptomatic women who had mammographic examination was negative in 69 (61.1%) women and positive in 44 (38.9%). The positive outcome noted in mammograms of women examined was: benign mass in 18 (15.9%) women; 9 (8.0%) had benign calcification; 7 (6.2%) showed architectural distortion; 5 (4.4%) was inconclusive; focal asymmetry in 3 (2.6%); and suspicious mass in 2 (1.8%). Conclusion: In this study, screening of women reveals various benign and malignant breast pathologies which necessitate early interventions.
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Assessment of renal function using cystatin C and creatinine in Saudi patients after transplantation p. 59
M Jeraiby
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_67_20  PMID:33727514
Background: Rapid and accurate assessment of kidney function in patients after transplantation is of utmost importance. The aim of this study was to compare the relationships of serum creatinine and serum cystatin C with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in kidney transplants Saudi patients after a certain period of transplantation. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study, 127 patients were categorized into three groups based on their length of survival after kidney transplantation; <1 year, from 1 to 5 years, and above 5 years after transplantation. Results of cystatin C and creatinine levels were compared by eGFR derived from estimation equation chronic kidney disease epidemiology collaboration. Results: In the three assessed periods, the mean (standard deviation) cystatin C level was 1.72 (0.57), 1.59 (0.64), and 1.82 (0.82), respectively, being highest after 5 years of transplantation, normal in 9.40%, and elevated in 90.60% of the participants, while creatinine level, decreased from 1.57 (0.53) to 1.52 (0.64) in 1–5 years, then it became the highest at 1.75 (0.69) in more than 5 years. The mean was normal in 21.30% and elevated in 78.70% of the patients. Both serum creatinine and cystatin C levels were negatively correlated with posttransplantation time in kidney transplant patients. Conclusion: The cystatin C level was statistically significantly higher after 5 years of transplantation. It is a better parameter to rule out renal dysfunction after transplantation.
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CASE REPORT Top

Magnesium status in patients with Type 2 diabetes (about 170 cases) p. 64
Houda Salhi, Hanan El Ouahabi
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_49_19  PMID:33727515
Magnesium (Mg) is an extremely important mineral. It plays major roles in physiological activities of the body. Lower intake of Mg and low-serum Mg concentrations are associated with metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and Type-2 diabetes. Aim: The aim of the study is to evaluate the association between concentration levels of serum Mg and common complications and co morbidities of diabetes mellitus and other biochemical indices. It is a case control study conducted in our department of endocrinology in Hassan II University Hospital of Fez from January 2015 to 2018. Our patients were classified into two groups. Low Mg (Group 1, n = 85) and normal Mg group (Group 2, n = 85). We evaluated demographics characteristics of our patients; the association between Mg status and clinical, biological parameters; and association between Mg status and degenerative complications. Our study included 170 patients. The research results showed that serum Mg level was strongly related to age, sex, diabetes duration, body mass index, hypertension, and glycosylated hemoglobin. Concerning common complication; we only found a negative correlation between Mg level and the existence of nephropathy. We did not find significant correlation with retinopathy; neuropathy; and macroangiopathy. The study has demonstrated that a low Mg level is correlated with a poor control glycemic; high blood pressure and nephropathy in patients with Type 2 diabetes. However, more research is needed to confirm these effects.
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