Annals of African Medicine
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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 18  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 86-91

Clinicopathologic presentation of malignant orbito-ocular tumors in Kano, Nigeria: A prospective multicenter study

1 Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria
2 Department of Ophthalmology, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, College of Health Sciences, Bayero University Kano, Kano, Nigeria
3 Department of Ophthalmology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Saudat Garba Habib
Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Bayero University Kano, Kano
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/aam.aam_37_18

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Background: Malignant orbito-ocular tumors are major causes of morbidity and mortality in the developing countries. Their presentation, morphologic type, and management are challenging, and earlier reports were mostly retrospective surveys. Histological analysis is essential in making correct diagnosis. Here, we determined the clinical presentations and histopathologic types of orbito-ocular tumors in some tertiary hospitals in Kano, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional multicenter clinical and pathologic study conducted between June 2012 and May 2013. A structured pro forma was used to record findings, patient's biodata, clinical presentation, type of surgical intervention, and histological diagnosis. Data were analyzed with STATA version 11.0. Results: Sixty-seven eye tumors were observed among 61 patients. There were 43 males and 18 females (male-to-female ratio = 2.4:1). Patients had a mean of 13.4 ± 18.3 with a median of 4.0 (0.5–70) years with a double peak in age distribution. The most common features were visual loss (90.2%), leukocoria (59%), proptosis (55%), and fungating mass (49.2%). The symptoms were for ≥6 months in 57.4% and unilateral in 82.1%. B-scan showed retinal masses and calcifications in 13.5% and 4.5%, respectively. Confirmation by histology was achieved in 91% with the most common tumor being retinoblastoma, conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and rhabdomyosarcoma with frequencies of 38 (56.6%), 11 (16.4%), and 6 (9.0%), respectively. Six patients were HIV positive and all had SCC. Conclusions: Retinoblastoma was the most common malignant orbito-ocular tumor observed in this study. Patients often present late to the hospital with visual loss.

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