Annals of African Medicine
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 16  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 74-80

The prevalence and course of preinvasive cervical lesions during pregnancy in a Northern Nigerian Teaching Hospital


1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Reproductive Health and General Gynaecology Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria
2 Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Fadimatu Bakari
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria
Nigeria
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/aam.aam_35_16

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Background: In spite of knowledge of the causes and prevention of cervical cancer, screening programs for cervical cancer have not yet been fully implemented in most developing countries including Nigeria. Documented data on the prevalence of preinvasive cervical lesion in pregnancy are scarce in our environment. Objectives: To determine the prevalence, risk factors, and course of preinvasive cervical lesion in pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic in Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital (ABUTH) Zaria, Northern Nigeria Study Design: This was a cross-sectional longitudinal study. Setting: The study was conducted in an antenatal clinic of ABUTH Zaria. Materials and Methods: A prospective cross-sectional longitudinal analysis was carried out at an Antenatal Clinic of ABUTH Zaria, Nigeria. A total of 250 consecutive pregnant women who fulfilled the inclusion criteria and have given their consent were recruited into the study at the time of their first prenatal (booking clinic) visit for antenatal care. Data from the pregnant women were obtained using a pro forma to evaluate sociodemographic characteristics and risk factors for preinvasive disease. Conventional Papanicolaou smear was taken using the standard procedure. The cytopathologic findings of initial and postpartum Pap smear were documented in the pro forma. Prevalence, persistence, progression, and regression rates of preinvasive diseases were determined. Results: Out of the 250 pregnant women who had cervical cytology by Pap smear during the study, 15 had preinvasive cervical lesion, giving a prevalence rate of 6%; 13 (87%) were low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LGSIL) while 2 (13%) were high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HGSIL). Negative smears were seen in 158 women (63.2%). Inflammatory and other conditions of the cervix which are technically negative smears made up the remaining 30.8%. At postpartum follow-up of the 13 women with LGSIL, 2 (15.4%) became negative while persistence of the disease was observed in 9 (69.2%) of the cases. Two women with LGSIL were lost to follow-up. Of the two women with HGSIL, persistence of the disease was seen in one woman (50%) and regression of the disease was seen in the other woman. Risk factors that were found to be associated with preinvasive cervical lesion were age at coitarche <16 years, number of sexual partners since coitarche, and previous history of sexually transmitted infection and human immunodeficiency virus. Parity, smoking, and use of contraception were found not to be significant risk factors. Conclusion: Preinvasive lesion of the cervix is relatively common among antenatal clients in our center. Antenatal clients with HGSIL should have a repeat smear at the end of the puerperium before treatment. Routine Pap smear should be offered to all antenatal clients in our setting.


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