|Year : 2014 | Volume
| Issue : 4 | Page : 204-209
Effect of demographic and injury etiologic factors on intensive care unit mortality after severe head injury in a low middle income country
Blessing N. R. Jaja, Patrick O Eghwrudjakpor
Department of Surgery, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria
|Date of Web Publication||7-Oct-2014|
Blessing N. R. Jaja
Division of Neurosurgery, St. Michael's Hospital, 30 Bond Street, Toronto, ON M5B 1W8, Canada
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
| Abstract|| |
Background: Low- and middle-income countries bear the mortality burden of head injury compared with high-income countries. Not much has been studied about predictors of poor outcome after head injury in these countries. This study describes and quantifies the effect of demographics and injury causative factors on mortality in a cohort managed in a Nigerian tertiary hospital intensive care.
Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was undertaken of all patients admitted into intensive care with severe head injury at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Nigeria between 1 st January, 1997 and 31 st December, 2006. Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the effect of age, gender and injury etiology on risk of intensive care unit (ICU) mortality.
Results: The number of ICU admission for severe head injury was 231 patients with a male to female ratio of 2.8:1. Patients' mean age and standard deviation was 31.2 ± 15.5 years. The mortality rate was 52.8%. Road traffic injury was the most common etiologic factor (84%). Logistic regression analysis indicated a 56% increase in the risk of ICU mortality between the ages of 21 and 40 years. The effect of age was found to be nonlinear (likelihood ratio P = 0.033). On multivariable analysis, patient's gender (odds ratio 1.07; 95% confidence interval: 0.56-1.97) and etiology of injury were not significantly associated with risk of mortality. Gender was not a modifier of the effect of age (P = 0.218).
Conclusion: The study indicated a strong prognostic effect of age. Gender and etiology of injury had no effect on ICU mortality among study cohort.
| Abstract in French|| |
Contexte: Faible ou moyen et vue pays portent le fardeau de la mortalitι de blessure ΰ la tκte par rapport aux pays high-income. Pas grand chose a ιtι ιtudiιe sur les prιdicteurs de mauvais pronostic aprθs traumatisme crβnien dans ces pays. Cette ιtude dιcrit et quantifie l'effet de la dιmographie et facteurs de causalitι sur la mortalitι dans une cohorte gιrιs dans une rιanimation hτpital tertiaire nigιrian des blessures.
Matιriel et mιthodes: A entrepris une ιtude rιtrospective de tous les patients admis en soins intensifs avec un traumatisme crβnien grave le Centre hospitalier universitaire d'Universitι de Port Harcourt, Nigeria entre 1 St Janvier 1997 et le 31 St Dιcembre, 2006. Analyse de rιgression logistique a ιtι rιalisιe pour examiner l'effet de l'ιtiologie d'βge, de sexe et de blessures sur le risque de mortalitι de l'unitι de soins intensifs (USI).
Rιsultats: Le nombre d'admission aux soins intensifs pour traumatisme crβnien grave a ιtι de 231 patients avec un mβle femelle ratio de 2. Ιcart-type et βge moyen des patients ιtait de 31,2 15,5 ans. Le taux de mortalitι ιtait de 52,8 %. Blessures du trafic routier a ιtι le facteur ιtiologique plus commun (84 %). Analyse de rιgression logistique ont indiquι une augmentation de 56 % du risque de mortalitι ICU βgιs de 21 ΰ 40 ans. L'effet de l'βge s'est avιrι pour κtre non linιaire (rapport de probabilitι P = 0,033). Analyse multivariable, sexe du patient (odds ratio de 1,07; intervalle de confiance de 95 %: 0.56-1.97) et l'ιtiologie des blessures n'ιtaient pas significativement associιe au risque de mortalitι. Sexe n'ιtait pas un modificateur de l'effet de l'βge (P = 0,218).
Conclusion: L'ιtude indique un fort effet pronostique de l'βge. Entre les sexes et l'ιtiologie de la blessure a eu aucun effet sur la mortalitι ICU parmi la cohorte de l'ιtude.
Mots-clιs: Crβnien, soins intensifs, mortalitι, Nigιria, Afrique subsaharienne, traumatisme crβnien
Keywords: Head injury, intensive care, mortality, Nigeria, sub-Saharan Africa, traumatic brain injury
|How to cite this article:|
Jaja BN, Eghwrudjakpor PO. Effect of demographic and injury etiologic factors on intensive care unit mortality after severe head injury in a low middle income country. Ann Afr Med 2014;13:204-9
|How to cite this URL:|
Jaja BN, Eghwrudjakpor PO. Effect of demographic and injury etiologic factors on intensive care unit mortality after severe head injury in a low middle income country. Ann Afr Med [serial online] 2014 [cited 2020 Oct 25];13:204-9. Available from: https://www.annalsafrmed.org/text.asp?2014/13/4/204/142292
| Introduction|| |
Low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) bear a disproportionate impact and burden of the global epidemic of head injury, , with recent projections indicating a more dismal prospect in the not too distant future.  Road traffic accidents (RTA) are the most common cause of head injury related deaths and the World Health Organization estimates that between the years 2002 and 2020 the total number of traffic deaths will increase by 65% globally and by 80% in LMIC. 
Most head injuries are mild with only transient effects. However, when mortality or functional disability occur, they usually are the results of severe head injury.  After head injury, the risk of mortality among people living in LMIC is reported to be 100% higher than the risk of mortality among those living in high-income countries (HIC).  Furthermore, severe head injury has been identified as the most common cause of mortality after admission to the emergency room in Nigeria. ,,
Multiple factors have been recognized as predictors of outcomes after moderate to severe head injury, including demographic, , clinical,  radiologic  and laboratory parameters. , Their effects have been quantified and the information codified into risk scores, for example the corticosteroid randomization after significant head injury predictive model, which are appropriate to inform patient management. ,, Since most of the studies were based on head injured patients resident in HIC, very little is known about the prognostic relevance of these factors in the setting of LMIC. It is likely that the nature of the relationship between predictors and outcomes may differ between both societies given the different patterns of epidemiologic presentation and management. For instance, severe head injury patients in LMIC are generally younger than their counterparts in HIC  and because of a longer life expectancy in HIC, head injury in HIC tends to show a bimodal distribution in age due to the effect of falls from a height in the elderly,  a pattern not seen in LMIC.
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of demographic and injury causative factors on mortality in severely head injured patients admitted into intensive care in a tertiary hospital of a LMIC.
| Materials and Methods|| |
The study was conducted at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, a regional referral tertiary hospital in the Niger Delta region of Southern Nigeria. The hospital caters to a population of about 5 million. The records of all patients who were admitted into intensive care for severe head injury from 1 st January, 1997 to 31 st December, 2006 were retrieved and reviewed. Severity of injury was assessed using the aggregate score of head injured patients on the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) as at the time of presentation to the emergency department. Severe head injury was defined as GCS score ≤8.  For this study, we collected demographic data related to patient's age, gender, etiology of injury and mortality outcome at discharge from intensive care.
Descriptive analysis of the retrieved variables was performed using χ2 test of proportion for analysis of categorical variables and the two-sample t-test for analysis of continuous variables. One-way ANOVA was used to test the hypothesis that age did not differ across etiologic factors. Logistic regression models were fitted to evaluate the association between age, gender, etiologic factors (predictor variables) and intensive care unit (ICU) mortality (outcome variable). The effect of age was estimated as the odds ratio (OR) over the difference between the 75 th and 25 th percentiles of cohort's age. We estimated the effect of age as the change in OR over the interquartile range, so as to allow for a more direct comparison of prognostic effect of age to those of gender and injury etiologic factors.  To test the likelihood that the effect of age on mortality is continuous and non-linear, we performed a likelihood ratio test to compare the main effects model (a model that assumes that the effects of predictors are linear) to a model, in which age was fitted using restricted cubic splines with four knots. Restricted cubic splines are smooth and flexible statistical functions that can be used to adequately approximate non-linear relationships and they have been recommended for prognostic analysis in traumatic brain injury to evaluate the effect of continuous variables on outcomes.  To visually, examine the shape of the effect of age on ICU mortality, we obtained smoothed plots of estimates of the probability of ICU mortality by age based on the model with age fitted with spline function. Test of the overall interaction effect of age and gender on mortality was also performed. Estimates of effect sizes were expressed as OR with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). For all analyses, the level of statistical significance was set at the probability level of 0.05. The R software version 2.15.0 was used in performing all analysis, employing Harrell's rms library (R foundation for statistical computing, Vienna, Austria).
| Results|| |
During the period under review, 231 patients were managed for severe head injury in the ICU, representing 38.7% of total ICU admissions. There were 169 males (73.2%) and 62 females (26.8%). The sex ratio was therefore 2.8:1. The mean age of the patients was 31.2 ± 15.5 years (range: 2-79 years). The proportion of patients who fall in the age bracket of 15-44 years was 64.9%. No statistically significant difference was seen on comparing the average age of males (32.20 ± 13.61 years) to that of females (28.32 ± 19.70 years), P = 0.092.
Etiology of injury
The causes of severe head injury were RTA in 194 (84.0%) patients, assault in 16 patients (6.9%), gunshot injury in 12 patients (5.2%) and fall from a height in nine patients (3.9%). [Table 1] shows age and gender distribution of patients by etiology of injury. The mean age of patients were similar across etiologic factors (ANOVA P = 0.217). Males were at increased risk of severe head injury from all etiologic factors.
|Table 1: Mean age and gender differences in etiology of severe head injury|
Click here to view
A total of 122 patients died in the course of ICU admission, representing a mortality rate of 52.8%. Post-ICU hospital stay for surviving patients was uneventful. [Table 2] shows descriptive statistics of predictor variables by mortality outcome. Patients who died during ICU admission were likely to be older than those who survived (ANOVA P = 0.01). The results of multivariable analysis are as shown in [Table 3]. There was a statistically significant association between age and mortality (P = 0.01) in adjusted analysis. The risk of mortality increased by 56% between the ages of 21 years and 40 years, adjusting for patient gender and etiology of injury. Gender was not a statistically significant modifier of the effect of age in the model (P = 0.218). There was a significant departure from linearity in the effect of age (P = 0.033). Smoothed estimates plot of probability of ICU mortality against age indicated a U-shaped relationship between age and mortality [Figure 1]. The change point in the risk of mortality was around the age group of 20-30 years. There was no significant difference in the odds of mortality when males were compared with females (P = 0.817), adjusting for age and etiology of injury. The odds of mortality did not significantly differ across etiology of injury, adjusting for age and gender (P = 0.62). Patients who sustained gunshot injuries were at a higher risk of mortality compared with those who had a RTA, but this relation was statistically insignificant (OR: 2.21, 95% CI: 0.63-7.79).
|Figure 1: Smoothed plots of probability of intensive care unit mortality showing the continuous and non-linear effect of age on risk of mortality|
Click here to view
| Discussion|| |
To our awareness, this study represents only a very few to describe the relationship between potential predictors and outcomes of severe head injury in a LMIC. Furthermore, it attempted to quantify the effect of demographic and etiologic factors on risk of ICU mortality. The pattern of head injury among study cohorts is typical of the picture seen in many LMIC, where head injury often occurred among young adults, commonly males who were involved in a RTA. ,,,, Most patients in this study did not survive their head injury. The proportion of patients who died during ICU admission is similar to 56% reported by a study in Kenya.  Other studies of severe head injury patients presenting to tertiary hospitals in other African countries  and in other centers in Nigeria  have reported higher mortality rates in the range of 70-90%. When contrasted with much lower mortality rates in more affluent societies, which are in the range of 16-38%, ,, these findings underscore the impact of severe head injury on the most economically active populations of LMIC and the importance of putting in place effective accident prevention and injury control measures and organized trauma care systems, which are currently lacking in many of these countries, Nigeria inclusive.
Of note also are differences in management provided to affected patients in LMIC compared with HIC. In our setting, patients with severe head injury admitted into the ICU (which is a 10 bed unit with dedicated nursing and medical staff) received further management consisting of clinical monitoring for raised intracranial pressure, maintenance of adequate perfusion and oxygenation. Plain skull radiographs and cranial computed tomographic scan were often requested, but could not be performed in most patients because in our fee-for-service health-care system most patients are unable to afford these basic imaging investigations or services are just inaccessible for logistic reasons. Mannitol was administered for suspected raised intracranial pressure. Prior to 2005, patients with suspected cerebral edema received dexamethasone. Exploratory burr hole was performed if clinically indicated. More advanced, timely neurointensive care is available to patients in HIC. ,
We found a strong effect of age on the risk of ICU mortality. For long, age has been recognized as a critical factor in predicting outcomes after head injury. , Among our patients, the risk of mortality increased by 56% over the 25 th and 75 th percentile of age (21-40 years). Analysis of a large cohort of moderate and severe traumatic brain injury enrolled into multinational randomized clinical trials conducted primarily in HIC found a 114% increase in unadjusted odds of 6 months functional disability over the same age percentile, in this case 21-45 years and 49% increase after adjustment for other predictors of poor outcome.  This previous study also found a continuous and non-linear effect of age as was the case in our present study. The u-shaped relationship between age and mortality risk among our patients is consistent with prior studies that documented higher mortality rates at extreme ages of life. , The change point among our patients, which occurred in the age group of 20-30 years suggest that although adults in this age group are often the most vulnerable to a head injury in LMIC,  they are most probably the least likely to experience ICU mortality. A similar analysis in HIC found a change point for functional disability at 6 months at the older age group of 30-40 years. 
In the present study, gender was not a significant predictor of ICU mortality. A number of previous studies have examined the prognostic role of gender under the premise that hormonal differences related to a neuroprotective effect of estrogen may modulate head injury outcomes. ,, However, no consistent pattern has yet been identified. While a relatively old meta-analysis concluded that females experienced better outcomes after head injury, only one of the included studies used mortality as the end point.  Some studies have reported a significant reduction in risk of mortality in menopausal patients compared with pre-menopausal patients, suggesting that female hormonal status may be relevant to understanding the prognostic effect of gender. , More recent systematic review  and meta-analysis  have concluded that women do not fare better than men functionally after moderate to severe traumatic brain injury.
The risk of mortality in study cohorts did not differ according to etiology of injury, which agrees with prior studies.  It is also likely this finding is artefactual as the small number of cases that is due to causes other than RTA in the present study indicates a lack of power to detect a statistically significant association. The study also has other noteworthy potential limitations. The study focused on severely head injured patients who survived to ICU admission at our center; hence the conclusions cannot be generalized to patients who died prior to admission or for long-term mortality outcomes. In addition, more robust findings could have been obtained in a multi-institutional study. Furthermore, the retrospective nature of our data may have potentially confounded the results, especially with regards to evaluating the effects of other predictors that could possibly be associated with ICU mortality. However, the focus in this study was on the effect of baseline demographic and etiologic factors.
| Conclusion|| |
The present study indicated a poorer outcome with advancing age after severe head injury among patients admitted into ICU in a LMIC. The effect of age was found to be continuous, but non-linear with a change point in the risk of mortality at an age group younger than that of more affluent societies. The effect of age was not modified by gender. The risk of ICU mortality was not related to patient gender or etiology of injury. Further research is needed to examine the temporal significance of these results in our setting and others in Nigeria and indeed LMIC and to explore the relationship of other predictors and outcome measures.
| References|| |
|1.||Peden M, McGee K, Sharma G. The Injury Chart Book: A Graphical Overview of the Global Burden of Injuries. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2002. |
|2.||Hyder AA, Wunderlich CA, Puvanachandra P, Gururaj G, Kobusingye OC. The impact of traumatic brain injuries: A global perspective. NeuroRehabilitation 2007;22:341-53. |
|3.||World Health Organization. World Report on Road Traffic Injury Prevention: World Health Organization; 2004. |
|4.||Maas AI, Stocchetti N, Bullock R. Moderate and severe traumatic brain injury in adults. Lancet Neurol 2008;7:728-41. |
|5.||De Silva MJ, Roberts I, Perel P, Edwards P, Kenward MG, Fernandes J, et al. Patient outcome after traumatic brain injury in high-, middle- and low-income countries: Analysis of data on 8927 patients in 46 countries. Int J Epidemiol 2009;38:452-8. |
|6.||Ekere AU, Yellowe BE, Umune S. Surgical mortality in the emergency room. Int Orthop 2004;28:187-90. |
|7.||Solagberu BA, Adekanye AO, Ofoegbu CP, Udoffa US, Abdur-Rahman LO, Taiwo JO. Epidemiology of trauma deaths. West Afr J Med 2003;22:177-81. |
|8.||Afuwape OO, Ogunlade SO, Alonge T, Ayorinde OR. An audit of deaths in the emergency room in the University College Hospital Ibadan. Niger J Clin Pract 2009;12:138-40. |
|9.||Mushkudiani NA, Engel DC, Steyerberg EW, Butcher I, Lu J, Marmarou A, et al. Prognostic value of demographic characteristics in traumatic brain injury: Results from the IMPACT study. J Neurotrauma 2007;24:259-69. |
|10.||Butcher I, McHugh GS, Lu J, Steyerberg EW, Hernández AV, Mushkudiani N, et al. Prognostic value of cause of injury in traumatic brain injury: Results from the IMPACT study. J Neurotrauma 2007;24:281-6. |
|11.||Marmarou A, Lu J, Butcher I, McHugh GS, Murray GD, Steyerberg EW, et al. Prognostic value of the Glasgow Coma Scale and pupil reactivity in traumatic brain injury assessed pre-hospital and on enrollment: An IMPACT analysis. J Neurotrauma 2007;24:270-80. |
|12.||Maas AI, Steyerberg EW, Butcher I, Dammers R, Lu J, Marmarou A, et al. Prognostic value of computerized tomography scan characteristics in traumatic brain injury: Results from the IMPACT study. J Neurotrauma 2007;24:303-14. |
|13.||Van Beek JG, Mushkudiani NA, Steyerberg EW, Butcher I, McHugh GS, Lu J, et al. Prognostic value of admission laboratory parameters in traumatic brain injury: Results from the IMPACT study. J Neurotrauma 2007;24:315-28. |
|14.||Lam SW, Leenen LP, van Solinge WW, Hietbrink F, Huisman A. Comparison between the prognostic value of the white blood cell differential count and morphological parameters of neutrophils and lymphocytes in severely injured patients for 7-day in-hospital mortality. Biomarkers 2012;17:642-7. |
|15.||Steyerberg EW, Mushkudiani N, Perel P, Butcher I, Lu J, McHugh GS, et al. Predicting outcome after traumatic brain injury: Development and international validation of prognostic scores based on admission characteristics. PLoS Med 2008;5:e165. |
|16.||Roozenbeek B, Lingsma HF, Lecky FE, Lu J, Weir J, Butcher I, et al. Prediction of outcome after moderate and severe traumatic brain injury: External validation of the International Mission on Prognosis and Analysis of Clinical Trials (IMPACT) and corticoid randomisation after significant head injury (CRASH) prognostic models. Crit Care Med 2012;40:1609-17. |
|17.||MRC CRASH Trial Collaborators, Perel P, Arango M, Clayton T, Edwards P, Komolafe E, et al. Predicting outcome after traumatic brain injury: Practical prognostic models based on large cohort of international patients. BMJ 2008;336:425-9. |
|18.||Rosso A, Brazinova A, Janciak I, Wilbacher I, Rusnak M, Mauritz W, et al. Severe traumatic brain injury in Austria II: Epidemiology of hospital admissions. Wien Klin Wochenschr 2007;119:29-34. |
|19.||Teasdale G, Jennett B. Assessment and prognosis of coma after head injury. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 1976;34:45-5. |
|20.||Murray GD, Butcher I, McHugh GS, Lu J, Mushkudiani NA, Maas AI, et al. Multivariable prognostic analysis in traumatic brain injury: Results from the IMPACT study. J Neurotrauma 2007;24:329-37. |
|21.||Muyembe VM, Suleman N. Head injuries at a Provincial General Hospital in Kenya. East Afr Med J 1999;76:200-5. |
|22.||Emejulu JK. Epidemiological patterns of head injury in a newly established neurosurgical service: One-year prospective study. Afr J Med Med Sci 2008;37:383-8. |
|23.||Odebode TO. Age related pattern and outcome of head injury in indigenous Africa. Niger J Clin Pract 2008;11:265-9. |
|24.||Keita M, Doumbia K, Diani M, Diallo M, Coulibaly M, Timbo SK, et al. Head and neck injuries: 184 cases in Mali. Med Trop (Mars) 2010;70:172-4. |
|25.||Zulu BM, Mulaudzi TV, Madiba TE, Muckart DJ. Outcome of head injuries in general surgical units with an off-site neurosurgical service. Injury 2007;38:576-83. |
|26.||Mwang′ombe NJ, Kiboi J. Factors influencing the outcome of severe head injury at Kenyatta National Hospital. East Afr Med J 2001;78:238-41. |
|27.||Aguèmon AR, Padonou JL, Yévègnon SR, Hounkpè PC, Madougou S, Djagnikpo AK, et al. Intensive care management of patients with severe head traumatism in Benin from 1998 to 2002. Ann Fr Anesth Reanim 2005;24:36-9. |
|28.||Adeleye AO, Olowookere KG, Olayemi OO. Clinicoepidemiological profiles and outcomes during first hospital admission of head injury patients in Ikeja, Nigeria. A prospective cohort study. Neuroepidemiology 2009;32:136-41. |
|29.||Alkhoury F, Courtney J. Outcomes after severe head injury: A National Trauma Data Bank-based comparison of Level I and Level II trauma centers. Am Surg 2011;77:277-80. |
|30.||McIntyre A, Mehta S, Aubut J, Dijkers M, Teasell RW. Mortality among older adults after a traumatic brain injury: A meta-analysis. Brain Inj 2013;27:31-40. |
|31.||Luerssen TG, Klauber MR, Marshall LF. Outcome from head injury related to patient′s age. A longitudinal prospective study of adult and pediatric head injury. J Neurosurg 1988;68:409-16. |
|32.||Odebode TO, Abubakar AM. Childhood head injury: Causes, outcome, and outcome predictors. A Nigerian perspective. Pediatr Surg Int 2004;20:348-52. |
|33.||Davis DP, Douglas DJ, Smith W, Sise MJ, Vilke GM, Holbrook TL, et al. Traumatic brain injury outcomes in pre- and post- menopausal females versus age-matched males. J Neurotrauma 2006;23:140-8. |
|34.||Berry C, Ley EJ, Tillou A, Cryer G, Margulies DR, Salim A. The effect of gender on patients with moderate to severe head injuries. J Trauma 2009;67:950-3. |
|35.||Ottochian M, Salim A, Berry C, Chan LS, Wilson MT, Margulies DR. Severe traumatic brain injury: Is there a gender difference in mortality? Am J Surg 2009;197:155-8. |
|36.||Farace E, Alves WM. Do women fare worse? A metaanalysis of gender differences in outcome after traumatic brain injury. Neurosurg Focus 2000;8:e6. |
|37.||Slewa-Younan S, van den Berg S, Baguley IJ, Nott M, Cameron ID. Towards an understanding of sex differences in functional outcome following moderate to severe traumatic brain injury: A systematic review. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2008;79:1197-201. |
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]