Annals of African Medicine
Home About AAM Editorial board Ahead of print Current Issue Archives Instructions Subscribe Contact us Search Login 

Table of Contents
Year : 2013  |  Volume : 12  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 55-56  

Prevalence of hepatitis B virus surface antigen among healthy asymptomatic students in a Nigerian University

1 Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
2 University Health Services, Main Campus, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria

Date of Web Publication7-Mar-2013

Correspondence Address:
Maryam Aminu
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/1596-3519.108257

Rights and Permissions

How to cite this article:
Aminu M, Okachi EE, Abubakar SM, Yahaya A. Prevalence of hepatitis B virus surface antigen among healthy asymptomatic students in a Nigerian University. Ann Afr Med 2013;12:55-6

How to cite this URL:
Aminu M, Okachi EE, Abubakar SM, Yahaya A. Prevalence of hepatitis B virus surface antigen among healthy asymptomatic students in a Nigerian University. Ann Afr Med [serial online] 2013 [cited 2023 Oct 3];12:55-6. Available from:


Hepatitis B is one of the most infectious diseases in the world and a major public health problem. [1],[2] About 5% of world population are asymptomatic carriers and 350 million people worldwide are chronic carriers of hepatitis B virus (HBV). [1] Chronic HBV infection is a major risk factor for deaths from cirrhosis and liver cancer. [1],[2],[3] The infection has reached hyper-endemic levels in Nigeria, [3] with the sero-prevalence of hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) estimated to range from 10% to 40%. [4] This study determines the prevalence of HBsAg amongst healthy asymptomatic students in Ahmadu Bello University (ABU), Zaria, Nigeria, and assesses the possible associated risk factors.

Two (2) ml of blood was collected from 200 consenting students during the months of July and August 2009. Each student completed a questionnaire used to obtained information on risk factors. Sera were separated by centrifugation at 1500 rpm for 5 min and screened for HBsAg using rapid immunochromatographic test kits. All sera and the test strips were allowed to equilibrate to room temperature (15-30°C) prior to testing. Positive sera were confirmed with ELISA (Beijing King Hawk, Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. SFDA, China). Pearson Chi-square was calculated at 95% confidence interval and p value ≤ 0.05 was considered significant.

Out of the 200 sera analysed, 25 (12.5%) were positive for HBsAg. Male students were more likely (14.4%: 17/118) to be infected with HBV than female students (9.8%: 8/82) [odds ratio (OR) =1.56, 95% CI = 0.638−3.800, χ2 = 0.957, df = 1, P = 0.225]. The highest incidence of HBsAg (31.3%: 5/16) was insignificantly (χ2 = 7.237. df = 3, P = 0.065) detected among students <18 years of age [Table 1]. Further analysis of the results showed a higher prevalence of 13.8% (21/152) in students below 30 years compared to 8.3% (4/48) in students above 30 years (OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 0.574−5.418). Married students had the highest prevalence of HBsAg (13.9%: 5/36) compared to single students (11.8%: 19/161). One third (33.2%: 64/200) of the students were not aware of hepatitis B and the mode of transmission. Knowledge of the virus was mostly gotten from discussion with friends and from lectures.
Table 1: Prevalence of hepatitis B virus surface antigen by gender and age group amongst students in Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria

Click here to view

The risk factors studied were unprotected sex, mouth-to-mouth kissing, blood transfusion, reused razor blade cuts, public barbing saloon clipper cuts, manicure and pedicure cuts, needle stick injury, reused needles, syringes and lancets, and scarification. There was no statistically significant relationship between HBsAg and all the risk factors studied (P > 0.05). However, students who had been cut with reused razor blade (OR = 2.32, 95% CI = 0.883−6.093) and those that had needle stick injury (OR = 1.66, 95% CI = 0.680−4.055) were more likely to be infected.

The high (12.5%) prevalence of HBsAg obtained in this study suggests that hepatitis B is common among students in the campus and may be due to its mode of transmission. Hepatitis B virus can be transmitted via contact with all bodily fluid (including saliva, semen, sweat, breast milk, tears, urine, vaginal secretions, and faeces) and by frequent and prolonged close personal contact with an infected person. [1],[2] Close personal contact is a characteristic seen in Main Campus, ABU, Zaria, where more than six students stay in a room in the hostel. Importantly, lack of knowledge of hepatitis B by one third of the students studied is alarming, especially when the virus is highly infectious and is hyper endemic in Nigeria. This finding, coupled with the high prevalence obtained, may increase the likelihood of further spread among students on campus. Students with reused razor blade cut and needle stick injury were more likely to be infected with HBV because the virus has very low-infective dose and is stable and infectious on environmental surfaces [1],[2] and other objects such as tooth brush. [4]

Therefore, there is an urgent need to step up hepatitis B health education campaign through means other than electronic and print media, as media was the least means through which the students in this study got to know about hepatitis B. Screening and vaccination of students during the first year of study is recommended since HBV vaccine has been shown to be protective. [4],[5] We propose further studies to identify factors associated with the spread of hepatitis B in Nigeria. We think our result may not reflect the true prevalence of HBV amongst students since HBsAg marker is not detected during the window period of the infection.

   References Top

1.Shepard CW, Simard EP, Finelli L, Fiore AE, Bell BP. Hepatitis B virus infection: Epidemiology and vaccination. Epidemiol Rev 2006;28:112-25.  Back to cited text no. 1
2.Willey JM, Sherwood LM, Woolverton CJ. Human diseases caused by viruses and prions: Direct contact diseases: Viral hepatitides. In: Willey JM, Sherwood LM, Woolverton, CJ, editors. Prescott's Microbiology. 8 th ed. New York: The McGraw Hill Companies International Edition. 2011. p. 919-21.  Back to cited text no. 2
3.Ott JJ, Stevens GA, Groeger J, Wiersma ST. Global epidemiology of hepatitis B virus infection: New estimates of age-specific HBsAg sero-prevalence and endemicity. Vaccine 2012;30:2212-9.  Back to cited text no. 3
4.Forbi J, Pennap G, Silas-Ndukuba C, Agabi Y, Agwale S. Serological markers and risk factors for hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses among students in a Nigerian university. East Afr J Public Health 2009;6:152-5.  Back to cited text no. 4
5.Odusanya OO, Alufohai E, Maurice FP, Ahonkhai VI. Five-year post vaccination efficacy of hepatitis B vaccine in rural Nigeria. Hum Vaccin 2011;7:625-9.  Back to cited text no. 5


  [Table 1]

This article has been cited by
1 Studies on the serological markers for hepatitis B virus infection among type 2 diabetic patients
James A. Ndako, Obinna O. Nwankiti, Joy O. Olorundare, Stephen K.S. Ojo, Charles E. Okolie, Oludolapo Olatinsu, Victor T. Dojumo
Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis. 2021; 35(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 Serological markers and risk factors associated with Hepatitis B virus infection among Federal Capital Territory prison inmates, Nigeria: Should we be concerned?
Chioma Cindy Dan-Nwafor, Ikeola Adeoye, Kehinde Aderemi, Martins Onuoha, Elizabeth Adedire, Adebobola Bashorun, Damaris Osunkwo, Saheed Gidado, Muhammad Balogun, Suleiman Idris, Ibrahim Ade-Yusuf, Ekpedeme Udom, Patrick Nguku, Jason T. Blackard
PLOS ONE. 2021; 16(3): e0248045
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 Hepatitis B virus infection-related knowledge, attitude, and preventive practices among market traders in Lagos, Nigeria - A cross sectional study
AdebolaA Adejimi, AdeyinkaA Bakare, AdedoyinO Ogunyemi, AjokeM Adewole
Journal of Clinical Sciences. 2021; 18(1): 32
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
4 Distribution of hepatitis B virus-positive individuals in Zaria, Nigeria, according to risk-associated practices
Abdurrahman El-Fulaty Ahmad, Adamu Girei Bakari, Bolanle O. P. Musa, Shettima K. Mustapha, Idris Nasir Abdullahi, Mohammed Ibrahim Tahir, Bello Yusuf Jamoh, Abdulqadri O. Olatunji, Sumayya Hamza Maishanu, Bello Hali, Claudia A. Hawkins, Atiene S. Sagay, Adebola T. Olayinka
Calabar Journal of Health Sciences. 2020; 3: 25
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
5 Seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus in a tertiary institution in North Western Nigeria
I Isa,M Aminu,S A Abdullahi,M A Sani,M D Esona
African Journal of Microbiology Research. 2015; 9(3): 171
[Pubmed] | [DOI]


    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

  In this article
    Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded44    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 5    

Recommend this journal