|Year : 2010 | Volume
| Issue : 3 | Page : 129-134
The reported preparedness and disposition by students in a Nigerian university towards the use of information technology for medical education
A Fadeyi1, OO Desalu2, A Ameen3, AN Muhammed Adeboye4
1 Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, University of Ilorin, PMB 1515, Ilorin, Nigeria
2 Department of Medicine, University of Ilorin, PMB 1515, Ilorin, Nigeria
3 Department of Computer Science, University of Ilorin, PMB 1515, Ilorin, Nigeria
4 Department of Paediatrics, University of Ilorin, PMB 1515, Ilorin, Nigeria
|Date of Web Publication||11-Aug-2010|
Department of Microbiology & Parasitology, University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, PMB 1459, Ilorin
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
| Abstract|| |
Background: The computer and information technology (IT) revolution have transformed modern health care systems in the areas of communication, storage, retrieval of medical information and teaching, but little is known about IT skill and use in most developing nations.
Objectives: The aim of this study has been to evaluate the reported preparedness and disposition by medical students in a Nigerian university toward the use of IT for medical education.
Methods: A self-administered structured questionnaire containing 24 items was used to obtain information from medical students in the University of Ilorin, Nigeria on their level of computer usage, knowledge of computer software and hardware, availability and access to computer, possession of personal computer and e-mail address, preferred method of medical education and the use of computer as a supplement to medical education.
Results: Out of 479 medical students, 179 (37.4%) had basic computer skills, 209 (43.6%) had intermediate skills and 58(12.1%) had advanced computer skills. Three hundred and thirty (68.9%) have access to computer and 451(94.2%) have e-mail addresses. For medical teaching, majority (83.09%), preferred live lecture, 56.78% lecture videos, 35.1% lecture handout on web site and 410 (85.6%) wants computer as a supplement to live lectures. Less than half (39.5%) wants laptop acquisition to be mandatory. Students with advanced computer skills were well prepared and disposed to IT than those with basic computer skill.
Conclusion: The findings revealed that the medical students with advanced computer skills were well prepared and disposed to IT based medical education. Therefore, high level of computer skill is required for them to be prepared and favorably disposed to IT based medical education.
| Abstract in French|| |
Arrière-plan: La révolution de la technologie (IT) informatiques ont transformé les systèmes de soins de santé modernes dans les domaines de la communication, de stockage, d'extraction d'informations médicales et de l'enseignement, mais peu élabore actuellement connues sur les compétences informatiques et l'utilisation dans la plupart des nations.
Objectifs: L'objectif de cette étude est d'évaluer la préparation signalée et la destruction par les étudiants en médecine dans une Université du Nigéria vers l'utilisation de l'information pour l'éducation médicale.
Méthodes: Un self-administré questionnaire structuré contenant des 24 articles a été utilisé pour obtenir des informations à partir des étudiants en médecine à l'Université de Ilorin, Nigeria sur leur niveau d'utilisation d'ordinateur, connaissance des logiciels et de matériel, de disponibilité et d'accès à l'ordinateur, la possession d'un ordinateur personnel et adresse e - mail, préféré à la méthode de l'éducation médicale et de l'utilisation de l'ordinateur comme un supplément pour l'éducation médicale.
Résultats: 479 D'étudiants en médecine, 179 (37.4%) avaient des compétences de base en informatique, 209 (43,6%) avaient des compétences intermédiaires et 58(12.1%) avait avancé des compétences en informatique. Trois cent trente (68,9%) ont accès à l'ordinateur et 451(94.2%) - adresses électroniques. Pour l'enseignement médical, la majorité (83.09%), préféré vivants Conférence, vidéos de la conférence de 56.78%, 35,1% Conférence document sur le site web et 410 (85.6%) veut ordinateur comme un supplément de vivre des conférences. Acquisition du portable moins de la moitié (39,5%) veut être obligatoire. Étudiants avec des compétences avancées en informatique ont été bien préparées et disposé à l'informatique que ceux avec les compétences de base en informatique.
Conclusion: Les résultats ont révélé que les étudiants en médecine avec des compétences avancées en informatique étaient bien préparée et disposée à informatique basée formation médicale. Par conséquent, un niveau élevé de compétences de l'ordinateur est nécessaire pour qu'ils soient préparés et favorablement disposé à l'éducation médicale informatique basée.
Mots-clés: Disposition, l'éducation, de la technologie de l'information, les étudiants en médecine, Nigéria, préparation
Keywords: Disposition, education, information technology, medical students, Nigeria, preparedness
|How to cite this article:|
Fadeyi A, Desalu O O, Ameen A, Muhammed Adeboye A N. The reported preparedness and disposition by students in a Nigerian university towards the use of information technology for medical education. Ann Afr Med 2010;9:129-34
|How to cite this URL:|
Fadeyi A, Desalu O O, Ameen A, Muhammed Adeboye A N. The reported preparedness and disposition by students in a Nigerian university towards the use of information technology for medical education. Ann Afr Med [serial online] 2010 [cited 2022 Jul 4];9:129-34. Available from: https://www.annalsafrmed.org/text.asp?2010/9/3/129/68358
| Introduction|| |
Information technology (IT) is an interconnected system of computers, ancillary equipments, hardware and software used in acquisition, storage, manipulation, management of data or information.  The IT via the internet consists of a global network of computers that allow information to be viewed or transferred from one computer to another. It offers facilities such as electronic mail, information transfer and the ability to search for information.  IT is becoming more popular in almost all disciplines and professions and has spread in the recent times in both developed and developing countries. , The use of computer technology has become an important component of education, as it plays a significant role in all the tiers of education particularly at the medical school level. ,, IT is a tool that "empowers" the teachers to teach more effectively and makes it easier for the students to understand difficult concepts and skills better. The student can have access to lecture notes, references, course materials and self-assessment questions posted by a lecturer on the internet and they can also take part in a tutorial from a distant location.  Today, computer-based test (CBT) is also increasingly being used for assessment of students' knowledge in many examinations. 
Several developed countries have chosen IT as one of the comprehensive learning objectives to be used as a guide for medical education. , The entrenchment of IT into medical school curricula was designed to promote the use of computer technology to enhance students' scientific and medical knowledge. , Apart from enhancing medical education, the knowledge and application of IT by future doctors would allow them to access, analyze, and manage information so that they can make educated decisions in patient care.  The use of IT is also essential for communication and information-sharing with colleagues and other health care professionals and for professional development as encompassed in e-health or telemedicine. , These advantages of information technology would be mirage if the medical students lack adequate computer skills and the necessary resources are not made available to ensure that they achieve substantive computer literacy to access and evaluate web-based information. ,,
In Nigeria, like most developing nations, the extent of use of IT particularly for student education is not well documented and as such, reinforcement of existing good practices and structures and filling of gaps can never be adequately addressed. Besides, neither is computer literacy taught or required at the University of Ilorin, Nigeria for medical education. This study therefore was designed to determine the reported preparedness and disposition by medical students at University of Ilorin, Nigeria to IT-based medical education.
| Materials and Methods|| |
This study was conducted in May 2009 among full-time medical students in their clinical years (400 to 600 levels) at the College of Health Sciences, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Kwara state, Nigeria. Students were educated on the purpose of the study, how to complete a questionnaire and the general content of the questionnaire. Students were also told that their participation in the study was voluntary and that the questionnaire was anonymous.
The College of Health Sciences had a total of 512 students in the 400-600 level class. The sampled population was the total students' population. The rational for this sampling method was to give the entire student the opportunity to participate in the study. The questionnaires were distributed after class lectures to students who were ever willing to participate in the study. The questionnaires were allowed to be taken home for completion at their convenience and to be returned within a period of one week. The representatives of each class were asked to follow-up all respondents through issuances of reminders to ensure the completion and submission of the questionnaires within the defined period.
A self-administered structured questionnaire that contains 24 items was administered to determine the reported preparedness and disposition by medical students in the College of Health Sciences, University of Ilorin toward the use of information technology for medical education. The questionnaire was used to ascertain their level of competency in computer usage, knowledge of computer soft and hardware, availability of computer at home, standby computer and projector in lecture rooms, possession of personal computer and email address, preferred method of medical education and rate of utilization of information technology as a supplement to teaching. The questionnaire was prepared by the authors and subsequently reviewed by a faculty member who is an expert in IT. The questionnaire was revised according to their comments and suggestions, and piloted among 20 students for face validity and clarity. The internal consistency of the test items of the questionnaire gave a Crohnbach's alpha of 0.8. Cronbach alpha is used to estimate the proportion of variance that is systematic or consistent in a set of test scores. It is more flexible than other internal consistency estimates and is often the appropriate reliability estimate for language test development projects and language testing research.
Definitions of computer operational terms
Basic computer skill is defined as the ability to use basic word processing and use internet.
Intermediate skill is defined as the ability to use word processing, internet and has additional skills such as use of other soft ware program.
Advanced skill is defined as the ability to effectively use hardware and soft ware, knowledge; ability for computer problem solving, advice and teaching.
Word processing is the ability to use the Microsoft word and Word perfect.
Spread sheet handling is the ability to use Microsoft excel.
Data base application is the ability to use Microsoft Access.
Presentation software involves the use of Microsoft Power point, Corel Presentation
Web site development and maintenance : developing a website and maintaining it
Descriptive and frequency statistics were performed and Chi square χ2 analyses were obtained using Epi info version 3.5.1
| Results|| |
A total of 479 out of 500 questionnaires given to students were completed and returned to the investigators giving a response rate of 95.8%. The mean age of the participating student was 24.2± 8.8 years, 151 (31.5%) were females and 328 (68.5%) were males. Two hundred and five students (42.8%) were in 400 level class, 119 (24.8%) in 500 level and 155 (32.4%) in 600 level class. When 479 medical students were asked to asses their level of competency in computer usage, 179 (37.4%) claimed to have basic skills (ability to do basic word processing and use internet), 209 (43.6%) intermediate skills (capable of doing word processing, internet use and has additional skills such as use of other soft ware program), 58(12.1%) advanced computer skills (hardware and soft ware knowledge; ability for computer problem solving, advice and teaching) while 33(6.9%) had no computer skill [Table 1]. Of the 479 students, 330(68.9%) reported that they have access to computer and 149 (36.1%) have no access to computer. The distributions of the types of computer available to student are shown in [Figure 1].
In this study, majority of the students, 451(94.2%), have e-mail addresses, 362(75.6%) had no access to internet facilities at home or in the hostels. Students were well disposed to the use of computer for medical studies and assignment 407 (85.0%), live medical teaching 398(83.1%), video medical lecture 272(56.8%) and computer supplemented medical teaching 410 (85.6%). Less than half of the students preferred lecture handout for medical education, 168 (35.1%) preferred that on web site and 189 (39.5%) opted for mandatory laptop ownership [Table 2]. Students with advanced computer skill were commonly disposed to the use of IT as supplement to teaching, replacement for some of the theoretical teaching, preference for lecture handout / figures on web site and use computer for medical studies and assignments [Table 3]. A large proportion of the student reported that more than 50% of their lecturers use computer for medical teaching and have 50-100% proficiency in the use of computer [Table 4].
|Table 3: Disposition to IT based education according to the computer skill level|
Click here to view
| Discussion|| |
The result of this study showed that 55.7% of the students have more than basic computer skills, that is, they were capable of using word processing, internet use and has additional skills such as hardware and soft ware knowledge; ability for computer problem solving, advice and teaching. This is however less than 72% obtained among osteopathic medical students in USA,  but in agreement with 59% final year medical and dental students at the College of Medicine University of Lagos and some other previous studies. ,,,,, The high level of computer literacy among Nigerian students perhaps may due to increases in knowledge of computer as a result of introduction of IT into the curriculum of some Nigerian schools, particularly private primary and secondary schools. Furthermore, access to computer among the student was 68.9% and this might have contributed to the increased awareness, knowledge and skills of computer operation. Ameh and colleagues in northern Nigeria had reported that 90.0% of the clinical year medical students don't have regular access to computer.  Similarly, the high level of computer literacy may also be linked to the high number (94.2%) of the students having an electronic mail account. Our finding was very higher than 58.0% among dental and medical students in Lagos, 76.4% in Ibadan among clinical medical and nursing students , and 75% among medical students in Tanzania. 
In this study, most students (85.0%) supported the use of computer for medical studies. However despite supporting the use of information technology, 83.1% still preferred live lecture for medical teaching and only 56.8% supported the use of lecture videos for medical teaching, 35.1% supported the use of lecture handout for medical teaching on web site and 40.3% for diskette of lectures for medical teaching. The live lectures often afford the students the opportunities to interact and effectively learn from their lecturer than video lecture, printed lecture from website and diskette or hard copy of lecture handout. Majority of the students with advanced computer skill were more likely to use lecture handout and figures on web site (26.3 vs. 58.6 P=<0.001) and favorably disposed to computer replacing some theoretical teachings (59.2 vs.72.4 P=0.35) or as supplement to teaching (83.8 vs.94.8 P=0.008) than student with basic computer skills. This observation was comparable to other previous studies. , We also found that most students (85.6%) were of the view that IT should be used as a supplement to medical teaching and this was comparable to report of other workers. , However, less than half of the students (39.5%) want laptop acquisition to be mandatory despite their interest in IT based medical education probably due to the poor financial status of parents and guardians in a poor resource setting and inadequate electrical power which is a prerequisite for operating a laptop. Almost half (49.8%) of the students reported that 50-75% of their lecturers used information technology for teaching and 36.5% reported that their teachers are very efficient in the use of computer in teaching of students. The low efficiency of the lecturers in use of information technology may be because of the late introduction of computer into our academic programs and also because majority of the lecturers never had the opportunity of information technology during their education.
In conclusion, the findings of this study have revealed that the medical students with advanced computer skills were well prepared and disposed to IT based medical education and significant percentage were against mandatory laptop acquisition. Therefore, high level of computer skill is required for them to be prepared and favorably disposed to IT based medical education while government should provide personal laptops to students.
| References|| |
|1.||Federal Republic of Nigeria (2001). Nigerian national policy for information technology. Available from: http.//nitda.gov.ng/document/nigeriaitpolicy.pdf [Accessed on 2009 Jan 10]. |
|2.||Mooney GA, Bligh JG. Information technology in medical education: Current and future applications. Postgrad Med J 1997;73:701-4. [PUBMED] [FULLTEXT] |
|3.||Awolola OJ, Lawson BL. The Creation of a National Telemedicine/E-Health Association in Nigeria and It′s Impact on the Federal Ministry of Health. ICT Committee. Society for Telemedicine and E-Health in Nigeria, 2005. Available from: www.medetel.lu/download/2006/parallel_sessions/.../Awolola.pdf [Accessed on 2009 Dec 7]. |
|4.||Kim HK, Shin I. Effect of IT Job Training on Employment and Wage Premium: Evidence from Korea Panel Data. The Developing Economies 2007;41:461-83. Available from: http://www.interscience.wiley.com [Accessed on 2008 Aug 20]. |
|5.||Dewhurst DG, Macleod HA, Norris TA. Independent student learning aided by computers: An acceptable alternative to lectures? Comput Educ 2000;35:223-41. |
|6.||Swaggers D Jr, Studenski S, Laird R, Rigler S. A case-oriented web-based curriculum in geriatrics for third-year medical students. J Am Geriatr Soc 2000;48:1507-12. |
|7.||Gursel Y, Musal B, Boulet JJ. Computer-based performance assessment in an undergraduate clinical clerkship. Med Educ 2009;43:483-4. [PUBMED] [FULLTEXT] |
|8.||Kaufman DM, Jennett PA. Preparing our future physicians: Integrating medical informatics into the undergraduate medical education curriculum. Stud Health Technol Inform 1997;39:543-6. [PUBMED] |
|9.||Contemporary issues in medicine-medical informatics and population health: Report II of the Medical School Objectives Project. Acad Med 1999;74:130-41. |
|10.||Greenes RA, Shortliff EH. Medical informatics: An emerging academic discipline and institutional priority. JAMA 1990;263:1114-20. |
|11.||Moehr JR, Grant A. Medical informatics and medical education in Canada in the 21 st century. Clin Invest Med 2000;23:275-80. [PUBMED] |
|12.||Candler C, Andrews MD. Technology in medical education: How the OU College of Medicine has used technology to enhance the medical education experience. J Okla State Med Assoc 2004;97:8-10. [PUBMED] |
|13.||Hollander S. Assessing and enhancing medical students′ computer skills: A two-year experience. Bull Med Libr Assoc 1999;87:67-73. [PUBMED] [FULLTEXT] |
|14.||Dorup J. Experience and attitudes towards information technology among first-year medical students in Denmark: Longitudinal questionnaire survey. J Med Internet Res 2004;6:e10. Available from: http://www.jmir.org /2004/1/e10/[Accessed on 2006 Aug 20]. |
|15.||Greenhalgh T. Computer assisted learning in undergraduate medical education. BMJ 2001;322:40-4. Available from: http://bmj.bmjjournals.com /cgi/content/full/322/7277/40[Accessed 2006 Aug 20]. |
|16.||Forman LJ, Pomerantz SC. Computer-assisted instruction: A survey on the attitudes of osteopathic medical students. J Am Osteopath Assoc 2006;106:571-8. [PUBMED] [FULLTEXT] |
|17.||McNulty JA, Halama J, Dauzvardis MF, Espiritu B. Evaluation of Web-Based computer-aided instruction in a basic science course. Acad Med 2000;75:59-65. [PUBMED] [FULLTEXT] |
|18.||Odusanya OO, Bamgbala OA. Computing and information technology skills of final year medical and dental students at the College of Medicine University of Lagos. Niger Postgrad Med J 2002;9:189-93. [PUBMED] |
|19.||Ajuwon GA. Computer and internet use by first year clinical and nursing students in a Nigerian teaching hospital. BMC Med Inform Decis Mak 2003;3:10. [PUBMED] [FULLTEXT] |
|20.||Bello IS, Arogundade FA, Sanusi AA, Ezeoma IT, Abioye-Kuteyi EA, Akinsola A. Knowledge and Utilization of Information Technology among health care professionals and students in Ile-Ife, Nigeria: A Case study of a university teaching hospital. J Med Internet Res 2004;6:e45. Available from: http://www.jmir.org/2004/4/e45/doi: 10.2196/jmir.6.4.e45[Accessed on 2010 Mar 1]. |
|21.||Ameh N, Kene TS, Ameh EA. Computer knowledge amongst clinical year medical students in a resource poor setting Afr Health Sci 2008;8:40-3. |
|22.||Samuel M, Coombes JC, Miranda JJ, Melvin R, Young EJ, Azarmina P. Assessing computer skills in Tanzanian medical students: An elective experience. BMC Public Health 2004;4:37. [PUBMED] [FULLTEXT] |
|23.||Steele DJ, Johnson Palensky JE, Lynch TG, Lacy NL, Duffy SW. Learning preferences, computer attitudes, and student evaluation of computerised instruction. Med Educ 2002:36;225-32. |
|24.||Lipman AJ, Sade RM, Glotzbach AL, Lancaster CJ, Marshall MF. The incremental value of internet-based instruction as an adjunct to classroom instruction: A prospective randomized study. Acad Med 2001;76:1060-4. [PUBMED] [FULLTEXT] |
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]