Annals of African Medicine
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   2015| January-March  | Volume 14 | Issue 1  
    Online since January 7, 2015

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Situational analysis of Orphans and Vulnerable Children in urban and rural communities of Plateau State
YO Tagurum, OO Chirdan, DA Bello, TO Afolaranmi, ZI Hassan, AU Iyaji, L Idoko
January-March 2015, 14(1):18-24
DOI:10.4103/1596-3519.148714  PMID:25567691
Background: Orphans and Vulnerable Children (OVC) are children affected by HIV and AIDS by virtue of, among others, living in a household where one or more people are ill, dying or deceased, or which fosters orphans, and children whose care givers are too ill or old to continue to care for them. They often have more health needs than their peers. This study was carried out to obtain baseline information on the needs of OVC in North-Central Nigeria as a basis for provision of relief services. Methods: A house to house cross-sectional survey of OVC recruited via a multistage sampling technique was carried out in four LGAs of Plateau State, Nigeria. The Child Status Index (CSI) tool was used to obtain information from the respondents and/or their caregivers. Vulnerability of the children was assessed using a Vulnerability Index (VI) scoring which ranged from 1-21, with 1-9 being vulnerable, 10-14 more vulnerable, and 15-21 being most vulnerable. Results: A total of 825 OVC ages ranging from 0-17 years and mean age of 9.8 ± 4.5 years were studied. 432 were males (52.4%) and 393 females (47.6%). 64.8% lived in households headed by women out of which 77.6% were widows. Six hundred and one (72.8%) household heads were farmers. Paternal orphans made up 59.8% of the respondents and 12.1% had lost both parents. Prevalence of abuse/exploitation was 17.7% and 66.7% experienced household food insecurity. Four hundred and seventy-eight (57.9%) OVC lived in households with no source of income. One hundred and fifty-one (18.3%) children (54.9% boys and 45.1% girls) had never been to school. 55.0% had minimal health problems. Majority of them (60.3%) lived in dilapidated shelter and 3.3% were living on the street. Conclusion: This survey revealed the various needs of OVC. Efforts to care, support and protect vulnerable children should not only focus on their immediate survival needs such as education, shelter and clothing, but also on long-term developmental needs that reduce children's vulnerability such as life skills, child protection, vocational training, food security and household economic strengthening.
  14,128 12 1
Microbiological assessment of well waters in Samaru, Zaria, Kaduna, State, Nigeria
Emmanuel A Aboh, Fatima J Giwa, A Giwa
January-March 2015, 14(1):32-38
DOI:10.4103/1596-3519.148732  PMID:25567693
Background: Majority of the human population in semi-urban and urban areas in Nigeria are heavily reliant on well water as the main source of water supply for drinking and domestic use due to inadequate provision of potable pipe borne water. These groundwater sources can easily be fecally contaminated and thus, increase the incidence and outbreaks of preventable waterborne diseases. This study was carried out to determine the bacteriological quality of some well waters in Samaru, Z. Materials and Methods: Samaru, Zaria located in Northern Nigeria, is a semi-urban university satellite town blessed with abundant ground and surface water. Five sampling sites were randomly selected for this study. A total of 10 samples: Two from each of the sites were collected fortnightly for 1 month (May-June, 2013). Samples were analyzed using presumptive multiple tube fermentation and confirmatory tests for total and fecal coliforms. The well water samples were also cultured for Salmonella, Shigella, and Vibrio chole. Results: The total coliform count for all the samples analyzed was >180+/100 ml. All the well water samples from the study locations were contaminated with one or more bacterial pathogens, Escherichia coli 20%, Klebsiella pneumoniae 100% and Proteus mirabilis 40%. Salmonella, Shigella, or V. cholerae were not isolated from any of the well water samples. Conclusions: The results from this study showed contamination of all the wells studied with fecal coliforms thus, indicating the possible presence of other enteric pathogens and a potential source for waterborne disease outbreaks. Well water in Samaru is not safe for drinking without additional treatment like disinfection or boiling. Periodic testing and constant monitoring of well waters should also be done to meet up with the World Health Organization Standards in the provision of safe, clean drinking water .
  11,827 6 1
Iron deficiency anemia in an Egyptian pediatric population: A cross-sectional study
Mohamed M. E. Al Ghwass, Eman Fawzy Halawa, Samar Mohamed Sabry, Dalia Ahmed
January-March 2015, 14(1):25-31
DOI:10.4103/1596-3519.148725  PMID:25567692
Objective: The aim of this study is to assess the frequency of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and associated sociodemographic factors among children between 6 months and 12 years of age. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study enrolled 300 children from June 2011 to June 2012 visiting the pediatric outpatient clinics of Al-Fayoum University Hospital. Data were collected using a structured interview questionnaire. Sociodemographic variables studied included sex, residence, family size, fathers' education, mothers' education, and crowding index. Included patients were evaluated clinically and laboratory for complete blood picture, serum iron, serum ferritin, and transferrin saturation. Results: It was found that 64% of studied children had IDA (20% mild, 41.7% moderate, and 2.3% severe). The logistic regression analysis found that children from rural areas, those from low social class and those of low maternal educational level had a higher risk for IDA than other children. Infants with IDA were found to consume foods with low iron content 50% below recommended daily allowance. Conclusion: The high frequency of IDA is a severe public health problem in developing countries like Egypt, especially in children from rural areas, those from low social class and those of low maternal educational level. Iron-rich foods should be advised by health care providers. Prophylactic iron supplements should be given to all infants from 6 to 23 months.
  5,926 9 2
Depression among adolescents attending secondary schools in South East Nigeria
Josephat M Chinawa, Pius C Manyike, Herbert A Obu, A Ebele Aronu, Odetunde Odutola, Awoere T Chinawa
January-March 2015, 14(1):46-51
DOI:10.4103/1596-3519.148737  PMID:25567695
Background: Depression among adolescents is an uncommon and frequently unrecognized issue in pediatrics. Children and adolescents however suffer from both depression and associated symptoms. Methods: The study was carried out among adolescents in secondary schools from two states; Enugu and Ebonyi metropolises within the age range of 9-18 in Enugu metropolis. The instrument employed for data collection was a structured self-administered questionnaire developed from the Goldberg Depression Questionnaire, a Screening Test for Depression. It is particularly suited for students in this age group. The families were assigned socio-economic classes using the recommended method (modified) by Oyedeji. Objectives: The aims and objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of several levels of depression among adolescents attending secondary schools in two states. Results: A total of 453 adolescents who are attending secondary schools from two states were recruited in this study. Depression is non-existent before the age of 10 years according to this study. The prevalence of moderate depression was lowest (2.3%) at the age of 10 and highest at (6.2%) the age of 13. The prevalence of severe depression was lowest (1.9%) at the age of 11 and highest (7.4%) at the age of 12. Female gender is a risk factor for depression. Children whose parents are separated showed higher incidences of depression in all the spectra studied. Conclusion: Adolescents exhibit different levels of depression with a female preponderance.
  5,856 6 -
Prevalence of hypertension and its correlates among employees of a tertiary hospital in Yenagoa, Nigeria
Oghenekaro Godwin Egbi, Stella Rotifa, Johnbull Jumbo
January-March 2015, 14(1):8-17
DOI:10.4103/1596-3519.148709  PMID:25567690
Background: Hypertension (HTN) is a common medical problem with increasing prevalence and dire consequences. Considering the relative proximity of hospital workers to health care delivery, one may expect a better control of HTN and associated risk factors in this population. The objective of the current study was to determine the prevalence of HTN and risk factors among hospital employees in a Nigerian tertiary hospital. Materials and Methods: All employees of the Federal Medical Center, Yenagoa (Bayelsa State, Nigeria) were invited for a HTN screening exercise on the world kidney day on March 14, 2013. A total of 231 participants completed this cross-sectional study. Data was obtained with a pre-tested interviewer-administered structured questionnaire while blood pressure was taken with an Accoson sphygmomanometer. Anthropometry was done using standardized protocols. Urine and blood were analyzed for glucose. HTN was defined as blood pressure >140/90 or prior diagnosis or use of antihypertensives. Data was entered, stored and analyzed with Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) version 20. Results: The crude and age-adjusted prevalence of HTN among the hospital employee was 21.3% and 23.8% respectively. Age, marital status, educational level, body mass index, waist circumference (WC) and waist hip ratio showed significant association with HTN in the univariate analysis. However, in multivariate regression analysis, only older age and abnormal WC predicted HTN. Conclusion: The prevalence of HTN among the hospital employees compared with reports in other population and was predicted by advancing age and abnormal WC. The study underscores the need for introduction of HTN screening programs among hospital employees especially staff that are older with truncal obesity.
  5,568 6 1
Smoking habits, awareness of risks, and attitude towards tobacco control policies among medical students in Lagos, Nigeria
Michelle G Dania, Obianuju B Ozoh, Emmanuel O Bandele
January-March 2015, 14(1):1-7
DOI:10.4103/1596-3519.148701  PMID:25567689
Background: This study aimed to assess the prevalence of cigarette smoking among medical students, and to determine their level of knowledge regarding risk associated with cigarette smoking and their attitude and behavior towards tobacco control strategies and policies. Materials and Methods: A stratified random sampling approach was used to select participants. A modified version of the the Global Health Professional Students Survey questionnaire was self-administered. Descriptive statistics were applied and comparisons were done using chi-square test. Multivariate logistic regression was used to obtain the significant determinants of smoking. A P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: A total of 250 students participated in the study with a response rate of 89.2%. The mean age (years) was 21.4 ΁ 3. Rate of ever smoking and current smoking was 9.6 and 1.2%, respectively. Age > 21, having a smoking father, and use of alcohol were significantly associated with ever smoking. Knowledge of smoking as a risk for emphysema was 72.8%, coronary artery disease 82.8%, stroke 68.8%, and low birth weight 76.4%. There were 103 (41.2%) students aware of antidepressant usage in smoking cessation. One hundred and ninety-five (78%) offered smoking cessation advice if a smoker had no smoking-related disease and did not seek their opinion about smoking, 68.8% affirmed to having adequate knowledge on smoking cessation, and 56.8% had received formal training on smoking cessation techniques. The ban on cigarette smoking in enclosed public places was supported by 92.4%. Conclusions: The prevalence of current cigarette smoking among medical students in Lagos is relatively low. Gaps exist in the level of knowledge of the students regarding risks of cigarette smoking, tobacco cessation strategies, and in their attitude and behavior towards offering tobacco cessation advice. There is need therefore to include formal training on tobacco control strategies at an early stage in the medical curriculum.
  5,334 9 2
Transvaginal sonography is feasible and universally acceptable to women in Ibadan, Nigeria: Experience from the 1 st year of a novel service
Folasade A Bello, Adeola O Odeku
January-March 2015, 14(1):52-56
DOI:10.4103/1596-3519.148740  PMID:25567696
Background: Transvaginal sonography (TVS) is the standard route for gynecological and early pregnancy assessment scanning, due to the higher resolution that allowed for a better view of the pelvis. It had not been available in the study area prior to this, and it was anticipated that clients would find it intrusive and unacceptable, and thus decline it. The study was aimed at accessing the acceptability of TVS in women. Method: A cross-sectional study of all clients who presented for gynecological and early pregnancy assessment scans at a private ultrasound diagnostic center in Nigeria during its 1st year of service. All suitable clients were counseled for TVS. This was carried out for them, while nonconsenters had transabdominal sonography. A questionnaire was administered to the consenting participants. Virgins and women currently experiencing heavy vaginal bleeding were excluded. Data were entered into SPSS-16 and analyzed with frequency tables. Results: Five hundred and seventy-seven women of varied demographic characteristics were included into the study. Only one (i.e., 1/577; 0.2%) declined TVS. The procedure was abandoned in one (i.e., 1/576; 0.2%) due to severe discomfort. All 575 that completed the examination stated they would accept TVS again in the future, if indicated. Conclusions: TVS was universally accepted by a diverse population of women in South-Western Nigeria. It is recommended that ultrasound scan providers in this location should acquire skills for it, if necessary, and that TVS be offered routinely for gynecological evaluation according to international standards.
  4,147 4 -
CASE REPORTS
Acanthomatous ameloblastoma of mandible crossing the midline: A rare case report
Neha Bansal, Soheyl Sheikh, Richa Bansal, Robin Sabharwal, Aanchal Gupta, Ankit Goyal, Nitika Kainth
January-March 2015, 14(1):65-68
DOI:10.4103/1596-3519.148746  PMID:25567699
Ameloblastoma is the most common aggressive benign odontogenic tumor of the jaws. Ameloblastoma is a benign epithelial odontogenic tumor that typically arises in the mandible or maxilla or, rarely, in the immediate adjacent soft tissues. A clinical, radiographic and histopathological report is presented of a case of acanthomatous ameloblastoma in relation to molar in the left mandible of a 30-year-old healthy male. The histopathological examination of the removed specimen revealed the histopathological pattern of an acanthomatous ameloblastoma. The radiographic appearance of the lesion showed the presence of multilocular radiolucencies, which were crossing the midline, which is rarely found in ameloblastoma. Due to its rarity and lack of data, we take this opportunity to present a world first case of acanthomatous ameloblastoma which was crossing the midline.
  2,955 4 -
A novel approach for retreatment of multirooted tooth by partial radisection
Gaurav Malhotra, Prerna Kataria, Pradeep Shukla, Shivangi Gupta, Vinod Sargaiyan, Ashish Mahendra, Santosh Kumar Subudhi
January-March 2015, 14(1):69-72
DOI:10.4103/1596-3519.148751  PMID:25567700
Modern advances in all phases of dentistry have provided the opportunity for patients to maintain a functional dentition for lifetime. Therapeutic measures performed to ensure retention of teeth vary in complexity. The treatment may involve combining restorative dentistry, endodontics, and periodontics so that the teeth are retained in whole or in part. Thus, tooth resection procedures are used to preserve as much tooth structure as possible rather than sacrificing the whole tooth. This treatment can produce predictable results as long as proper diagnostic, endodontic, surgical, prosthetic, and maintenance procedures are performed. The keys to long-term success appear to be thorough diagnosis, selection of patients with good oral hygiene and careful surgical and restorative management.
  2,364 2 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Blood pressure indices, life-style factors and anthropometric correlates of casual blood glucose in a rural Nigerian community
Augustine N Odili, Emmanuel O Abatta
January-March 2015, 14(1):39-45
DOI:10.4103/1596-3519.148735  PMID:25567694
Background: Disordered blood glucose metabolism is associated with poor cardiovascular disease outcomes. Relationship between casual blood glucose (CBG) and blood pressure indices among rural dwellers in Nigeria has been less studied. Methods: We measured CBG, anthropometry, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) pulse pressure (PP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) and life-style cardiovascular risk factors. Results: The mean (standard deviation) of CBG was 6.2 (1.9) and values were similar in men and women. Age, SBP, DBP PP, MAP, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference were positively correlated with CBG; r = 0.23, 0.30, 0.24, 0.28, 0.28, 0.24 and 0.22 respectively. In a multivariate analysis, only PP and BMI predicted CBG. A 5 mmHg increase in PP or a 2 kg/m 2 increase in BMI increased CBG by 0.15 or 0.18 mmol respectively. PP and BMI in combination explained 13% of the variation in CBG (P < 0.001). Conclusion: PP and BMI are associated with CBG among rural dwellers in South-East Nigeria.
  2,028 2 -
CASE REPORTS
Aspergillosis of the bone
TM Dabkana, Umaru H Pindiga, Ahmed A Mayun, Haruna A Nggada
January-March 2015, 14(1):62-64
DOI:10.4103/1596-3519.148745  PMID:25567698
Aspergillosis of the long bones has not been reported. Those of the bones of the paranasal sinuses and ear canal have been reported but rare. A young woman reported to us with history of discharging sinuses around the right knee and recent fracture of the right femur. Despite all efforts, she ended up losing the whole limb from the hip. When a patient with Aspergillosis of the long bones presents late, amputation may be the best option. Early diagnosis will prevent this.
  1,632 3 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Is prostate-specific antigen a reliable marker for uterine leiomyoma detection?
Alireza Abdollahi
January-March 2015, 14(1):57-61
DOI:10.4103/1596-3519.148743  PMID:25567697
Background: Now it is accepted that prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is expressed extra prostatically and it is clear that many hormonally regulated female tissues show detectable PSA levels. This study was conducted due to differences of view between researchers about the role of PSA in some women diseases. This study was designed to evaluate the clinical implication of serum PSA measurement in diagnosis or management of patients with uterine myoma. Materials and Methods: This was a case-control study. A total of 224 patients included in this study. Serum specimens were isolated and were stored at -70΀C until all specimens were completed. Wilcoxon's rank-sum test was used to identify statistically significant differences between the total PSA and free PSA measurements in patient groups. Results: We noticed that there is no statistical significant correlation between total or free serum PSA level of cases with uterine myoma and control group (P = 0.433 and 0.700, respectively). Furthermore, no statistical difference was considered either in size or frequency of leiomyomas and free or total serum PSA (P = 0.126 and 0.433 and P = 0.997 and 0.442, respectively). Conclusion: We concluded that serum PSA measurement has little clinical utility in diagnosis or management of uterine leiomyoma.
  1,619 3 -
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