Annals of African Medicine
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   2011| October-December  | Volume 10 | Issue 4  
    Online since November 2, 2011

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Anemia in pregnancy at two levels of health care in Ibadan, south west Nigeria
Adesina Olubukola, Akinyemi Odunayo, Oladokun Adesina
October-December 2011, 10(4):272-277
DOI:10.4103/1596-3519.87042  PMID:22064252
Background: In Africa, anemia in pregnancy contributes to non-attainment of the MDG goals 4 and 5. This study examined the prevalence and some risk factors for anemia at two levels of health care in the Ibadan metropolis. Methods: This was a retrospective study of the booking records of pregnant women at the University College Hospital (UCH, a profit-making tertiary institution) and Adeoyo Maternity Hospital (AMH, a secondary level institution offering free services) in Ibadan, September 1, 2008 to December 31, 2008. Eligible women had singleton pregnancies and no known chronic illnesses. Anemia was defined as packed cell volume (PCV) <30%, and degrees of anemia as mild (PCV 27-29%), moderate (PCV 19-26%), and severe (PCV below 19%). Statistical analysis was done by the Chi-square test, Fisher exact test, and t-test. A P value of <0.05 was considered significant. Results: Data from 2702 women (384 and 2318 from UCH and AMH, respectively) were available for analysis. About 30% of the women were anemic. The patients in UCH had higher mean PCV (33.03± 4.32 vs. 31. 04 ± 4.09, P = 0.00). A higher proportion of anemia was seen in patients presenting in Adeoyo (32.4% vs. 16.7%, P = 0.00). Factors associated with anemia included young age (P = 0.00), low parity (P = 0.00), and hospital type (P = 0.00). Parity and hospital type remained significant on logistic regression. Conclusion: Lower prevalence of anemia at the tertiary hospital maybe attributed to the higher socioeconomic status of the clientele. Short-term early antenatal management of anemia and long-term economic/educational empowerment is advocated.
  34,496 21 3
REVIEW ARTICLES
Doppler ultrasound in the assessment of suspected intra-uterine growth restriction
N AL Qahtani
October-December 2011, 10(4):266-271
DOI:10.4103/1596-3519.87041  PMID:22064251
Small fetuses constitute a large heterogenous group that includes healthy small fetuses, chromosomally abnormal fetuses and fetuses suffering from utero-placental insufficiency leading to restriction in fetal growth. This review outlines the diagnosis of intra-uterine growth restriction and describes how to differentiate this group from the group of healthy small fetuses. This is very crucial in the management of small fetuses in order to avoid unnecessary intervention in the healthy group, as well as avoid stillbirth and neonatal mortality and morbidity.
  11,715 26 4
Progress in management of typhoid perforation
AY Ukwenya, A Ahmed, ES Garba
October-December 2011, 10(4):259-265
DOI:10.4103/1596-3519.87040  PMID:22064250
Case fatality rate (CFR) for typhoid perforation (TP) has been on gradual but variable decline world wide. This review highlights the progress in management of TP from 1960 including the controversies, current principles of management and the advances associated with the best results of treatment. This is a review of publications on TP from 1960 to 2010 principally from Medline and Ovid databases. Main search terms used are typhoid and perforation. The median CFR by decade was estimated from studies that reported CFR. With advances in surgery and supportive care, median CFR for TP declined from over 50% in 1960 to single digits in the last decade in some countries but with West Africa lagging behind at 16%. Variations in CFR are attributed to differences in perforation-operation interval and quality of care. Opportunities now exist for patients with TP to recover from the disease but priority remains with prevention of enteric fever in endemic areas.
  8,538 33 4
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Maternal and fetal outcome in patients with eclampsia at Murtala Muhammad specialist Hospital Kano, Nigeria
Ibrahim A Yakasai, Sule A Gaya
October-December 2011, 10(4):305-309
DOI:10.4103/1596-3519.87049  PMID:22064258
Background/Objectives: Eclampsia is a major contributor to maternal and perinatal mortality worldwide. It is much more common in developing countries like Nigeria where presentation is usually late and resources are scarce. The staggering figures of maternal death (46%) reported by the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Nigeria (SOGON) in 2004 moved the Kano State government to initiate programs that will reduce maternal mortality in the state. The objectives of this report were; 1) to determine the prevalence of eclampsia at Murtala Muhammad Specialist hospital (MMSH) Kano between April 2008 and May 2009; 2) to determine maternal and fetal outcome in eclamptic patients admitted to MMSH Kano between April 2008 and May 2009. Methods : Case records of all patients admitted to MMSH between April 2008 and May 2009 were retrieved and analyzed using Epi-info version 3.2.2 April 2004 (CDC Atlanta, USA). Information extracted includes demographic data, maternal and fetal outcome. A P value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results: There were 688 eclamptic patients admitted and 13 943 women delivered during the study period giving a prevalence of 5% of total deliveries. One hundred and twenty six women died giving a maternal mortality ratio (MMR) of 904/100 000, among them 36 were eclamptics. The perinatal mortality rate for the eclamptics was 132/1 000. 81.4% of the women were primigravidas and majority (82.2%) were at term. Almost 83.3% presented within 12 hours of the onset of the fits and nearly half (44.9%) had their convulsion before the onset of labor. Conclusion: The incidence of eclampsia is 5% of total deliveries. Delay in presentation is associated with poor outcome.
  5,529 13 4
Features and perceptions of menopausal women in Benin City, Nigeria
Adedapo B Ande, Oruerakpo P Omu, Oluyinka O Ande, Nelson B Olagbuji
October-December 2011, 10(4):300-304
DOI:10.4103/1596-3519.87048  PMID:22064257
Background/Objective: The features of menopause have always been assumed to occur only to a minor degree of significance in Nigerian women. Perceptions of menopausal symptoms are greatly influenced by social, cultural and economic settings and may influence the mode of treatment for menopausal symptoms. The aim of this study was to determine the features and perceptions of natural menopause among menopausal women in Benin-City, Edo State, Nigeria. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study of 533 randomly selected Nigerian women in Benin City, Edo State who had experienced at least 24 continuous months of amenorrhea using a structured questionnaire. Results: The ages of the women studied ranged between 47 and 78 years; mean 57.4 ± 6.3 years. The mean menopausal and menercheal ages were 49.8 ± 2.6 and 15.2 ± 2.0 years. Most (80.7%) were currently married with 63.6% in monogamous relationships. Three hundred and fifty-six women (66.8%) have heard of the word menopause and correctly described it. Menopause was considered a normal event by 97.4%. Majority (407; 77.6%) adjusted very well to the events of menopause with none revealing any serious maladjustment. Three hundred and forty-six women (64.9%) were no longer sexually active. Joint pains (287; 53.8%), hot flushes (272; 51%) and night sweats (22; 42%) were the most common symptoms believed to be related to menopause. Three hundred and two women (56.7%) actually suffered at least one of the menopause symptoms. Joint pains (52.9%), hot flushes (43.3%) and night sweats (29.8%) were the commonest symptoms experienced. Freedom from monthly bleeding (50.7%) was the most commonly reported advantage of menopause. Only thirty nine (7.3%) were aware of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and none were on /ever had HRT. Conclusion: Although menopause is well-tolerated by women in our environment, it needs further investigation. Research priorities include the influence of socio-cultural beliefs on sexuality at menopause and evaluation of HRT benefits.
  4,539 18 1
CASE REPORT
Disseminated Langerhan's cell histiocytosis: A case report and review of the literature
Abdullahi Mohammed, Kabir Abdullahi, Umar Mohammed, Halima O Aliyu, Almustapha A Liman, Shehu Abdullahi, Halima M Bello, Nasiru Abubakar, M Abubakar, Karo C Akpobi, Usman B Mafara
October-December 2011, 10(4):310-313
DOI:10.4103/1596-3519.87050  PMID:22064259
Langerhan's cell histiocytosis is characterized by the presence of large mononucleated cells associated with inflammatory cells. We describe the clinical presentation, histopathology and some immunohistochemistry findings, in an eight-year-old female patient.
  4,485 13 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Profile and causes of mortality among elderly patients seen in a tertiary care hospital in Nigeria
Emmanuel O Sanya, Alfred A Abiodun, Philip Kolo, Timothy O Olanrewaju, Kehinde Adekeye
October-December 2011, 10(4):278-283
DOI:10.4103/1596-3519.87043  PMID:22064253
Background: Old age is one of the factors associated with increased risk of dying when admitted to hospital. Therefore, aim of this study was to examine causes and pattern of death among elderly patients managed in a tertiary care hospital in Nigeria with scanty mortality records. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was on deaths that occurred in patients 60 years and above admitted to University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital (UITH), Ilorin, between January 2005 and June 2007. Excluded were all brought-in-dead during the study period. Information obtained included demographic data, duration on admission, and diagnosis. Causes of death were determined from clinical progress notes and diagnosis. Results: A total of 1298 deaths occurred during the study period, of which 297 occurred in persons 60 years and above with crude death rate of 22.8%. The mean age at death was 68 ± 9 years (ranged 60-100 years). This consisted of 59% males and 41% females. Mean age at death for females was 69.7 ± 8.7 years and for males 68.1 ± 9.8 years (P=0.05). Mean values of serum chemistry were sodium 137 ± 8 mMol/l, potassium 3.6 ± 1 mMol/l, urea 11 ± 8 mMol/l, and creatinine 126 ± 91 μmol/l. The value of mean haemogram concentration was 10.5 ± 3 gm/dl and white cell count was 12 ± 2 × 10 9 / mm 3 . The three most common diagnoses at deaths were stroke (19.8%), sepsis (16.5%), and lower respiratory tract disease (8.1%). Infectious diseases accounted for 38.2% of all diagnoses. Collective mean length of hospital stay (LOS) at death was 6.8 ± 8.6 (ranged 15 minutes-60 days). Close to 27.4% of the deaths occurred within 24 hours and neurological disorder had shortest hospital stay (4.6 ± 6.3 days), followed by endocrine disorders (6.8 ± 8.4 days) and respiratory diseases (8.4 ± 5.6 days) [P=0.001]. Conclusion: Hospital mortality is high amongst older people. Stroke and infectious diseases are leading causes of death. Efforts should be geared toward reducing risk for cardiovascular diseases and improvement on level of personal and community hygiene.
  4,315 22 4
Dyslipidemias in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in Nnewi South-East Nigeria
NN Jisieike-Onuigbo, EI Unuigbe, CO Oguejiofor
October-December 2011, 10(4):285-289
DOI:10.4103/1596-3519.87045  PMID:22064254
Background: Dyslipidemia has been noted to play an integral role in the pathogenesis and progression of micro and macrovascular complications in diabetes mellitus patients. The complications exemplified by renal vascular and cardiovascular disease cause the most morbidity and mortality in this group of patients. Objective: This study is aimed at understanding the pattern of dyslipidemia among type 2 diabetic patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 108 consenting adult type 2 diabetic patients seen in the medical unit of the Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital Nnewi were evaluated in this crosssectional study. Their fasting lipid profile, fasting blood glucose, weight, height and blood pressure were evaluated. Result: The prevalence of dyslipidemia (at least one abnormal lipid profile) was 90.7%. The 24.1% had single dyslipidemia while 66.6% had combined dyslipidemia. Reduced HDL constituted the highest single abnormality (62%) followed by hypertriglyceridemia (56.5%), hypercholesterolemia (53.7%) and high LDL in (44.4%). The duration of DM was not significantly associated with dyslipidemia (P >0.05). Conclusion: Dyslipidemia is highly prevalent among type 2 diabetic patients in Nigeria with the majority of the patients having combined dyslipidemia. We recommend that aggressive treatment of lipidemia and hyperglycemia can be instituted to reduce the risk of macro and microvascular complications.
  3,881 18 4
Awareness and utilization of protective eye device among welders in a southwestern Nigeria community
Iyiade A Ajayi, Adenike O Adeoye, Charles O Bekibele, Oluwatoyin H Onakpoya, OJ Omotoye
October-December 2011, 10(4):294-299
DOI:10.4103/1596-3519.87047  PMID:22064256
Objective: To determine the level of awareness and practice of use of protective eye devices among welders in Ile-Ife. Methods: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study of 405 consenting welders. A pretested proforma was utilized to obtain information on sociodemographic characteristics, as well as awareness and use of protective eye device. Results: The age of the respondents ranged from 16 to 80 years. The mean age was 39 ± 13 years. A large proportion (315, 78%) of the welders was aged between 21 and 50 years. The youngest group aged ≤20 years accounted for 15 (4%) of all welders, while the oldest group aged >60 years accounted for 21 (5.2%). 402 were males (99.3%) and three were females (0.7%). Three hundred thirty-six (83%) of the welders had practiced for 6 years and above. There was a high level of awareness of protective eye devices among the welders (367, 90.6%), being higher among arc welders compared with gas welders (P<0.001). Less than half (186, 45.9%) of the welders possessed protective eye devices. Of these, only 39 (9.6%) made use of the devices always. Some of the reasons for not using the protective eye devices include discomfort and poor visibility (56, 13.6%) and inadequate appreciation of the necessity to wear it (49, 12.1%). Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that a significant proportion of welders in Ile-Ife were not utilizing protective eye device. Health education and awareness campaigns about the importance and benefits of utilizing protective eye devices are recommended.
  3,757 16 1
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
Prognosis of idiopathic intracranial hypertension in Saudi Arabia
Nura H Alkali, Abdulkader Daif, Malli Dorasanamma, Mansour A Almoallem
October-December 2011, 10(4):314-315
DOI:10.4103/1596-3519.87051  PMID:22064260
  2,857 13 2
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Should non acute and recurrent headaches have neuroimaging before review by a Neurologist?- A review in a Southern Nigerian Tertiary Hospital
Frank Aiwansoba Imarhiagbe, Ehi Ogbeide
October-December 2011, 10(4):290-293
PMID:22064255
Background: Headache is a common complaint in general practice and it is known that most headaches are primary and that the yield of neuroimaging like cranial computed tomography (CT) in headache is generally low. In this study, we were able to demonstrate that the yield of neuroimaging in non-acute and recurrent headache could be higher if cases are reviewed first by a specialist Neurologist before cranial CT. Method: Seventy-four cases that were referred to the specialist neurology clinic with complaints of chronic and recurrent headaches without focal neurological deficit that had CT scan were reviewed consecutively using the short form of the International Classification of Headache Disorders second edition (ICHD 2) criteria after their demographics of age, sex were captured, to find out the proportion and characteristics of study cases that had identifiable cranial lesions on cranial CT scan. All cases were reviewed by a specialist Neurologist before CT scan and all CT films were reviewed by a specialist Radiologist. Age, sex and the distribution of CT findings were described from a frequency table and mean age of study cases with and without identifiable lesions on CT were compared with t-test for any significant difference and the effect of gender on the presence of identifiable lesions was tested with chi square and the agreement between clinical and CT diagnoses were tested on kappa statistics. Results: (1) Mean age of cases was 37.55 (22.06) years. (2) No significant effect of gender was found on intracranial lesions (P = 0.345). (3) Intracranial lesions were found in 47.3% of cases and the mean age was higher compared to cases with normal findings on cranial CT (P = 0.019). (4) Clinical and CT diagnoses agreed in 56.2% of the cases (P = 0.000). Conclusion: The high yield of intracranial lesions may be accounted for by the method of selection of cases for cranial CT.
  2,620 19 1
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
Referral for assisted reproductive technology: Indications and treatment outcome
Adebiyi Gbadebo Adesiyun
October-December 2011, 10(4):316-318
DOI:10.4103/1596-3519.87052  PMID:22064261
  2,201 9 -
COMMENTARY
Commentary
Yomi Ogun
October-December 2011, 10(4):283-284
  1,558 15 -
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