Annals of African Medicine
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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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October-December 2017
Volume 16 | Issue 4
Page Nos. 149-200

Online since Monday, October 16, 2017

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REVIEW ARTICLE  

Urbanization, cities, and health: The challenges to Nigeria – A review p. 149
Alhaji A Aliyu, Lawal Amadu
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_1_17  PMID:29063897
The Nigerian society is rapidly becoming urban as a result of a multitude of push and pull factors. This has generated urban health crises among city dwellers notably the urban poor. A systematic search of published literature in English was conducted between 1960 and 2015. Published peer review journals, abstracts, Gray literature (technical reports, government documents, reports, etc.), inaugural lectures, and internet articles were reviewed. Manual search of reference lists of selected articles were checked for further relevant studies. The review showed that the pace of urbanization is unprecedented with cities such as Lagos having annual urban growth rate of 5.8%. Urbanization in Nigeria is mainly demographically driven without commensurate socioeconomic dividends and benefits to the urban environment. This has created urban health crises of inadequate water safe supply, squalor and shanty settlements, sanitation, solid waste management, double burden of diseases and inefficient, congested, and risky transport system. In conclusion, when managed carefully, urbanization could reduce hardship and human suffering; on the other hand, it could also increase poverty and squalor. Some laws need to be amended to change the status of poor urban settlements. Urban health development requires intersectoral approach with political will and urban renewal program to make our urban societies sustainable that promote healthy living.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Pattern of presentation of gastroesophageal reflux disease among patients with dyspepsia in Kano, Nigeria p. 159
Abubakar Sadiq Maiyaki, Musa Muhammed Borodo, Adamu Alhaji Samaila, Abdulmumini Yakubu
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_18_17  PMID:29063898
Background: Dyspepsia is a symptom complex rather than a specific disease entity. It can be caused by both organic and functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GORD) though a common digestive disorder worldwide is scarcely reported in Nigeria. The aim of this study is to determine the pattern of presentation of GORD among patients with dyspepsia. Methods: One hundred and seventy dyspeptic patients were recruited consecutively as they were referred to the Gastroenterology Unit of Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital for upper GI endoscopy. A prepared questionnaire on relevant demographic and clinical history relating to GORD was administered. Upper GI endoscopy was then performed on each patient. Results: The prevalence of GORD was 24.1%, with a M:F ratio of 1:1.1. Endoscopy-positive variant accounted for 16 cases (9.4%), while endoscopy-negative variant accounted for 25 cases (14.7%), with of the total GORD patients, 26(63.4%) were males while 15(36.6%) were females. Los Angeles Grade A (37.5%) was the predominant endoscopic esophageal mucosal injury found in 6 cases. Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma accounted 4.9% each and were considered to be rare. Extra-esophageal manifestations were also rare. Conclusions: Endoscopy-negative variant still remains the predominant endoscopic finding in GORD patients.
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Clinicians-related determinants of anticoagulation therapy and prophylaxis in Nigeria p. 164
Raphael Anakwue, Theresa Nwagha, Ogba J Ukpabi, Ndudim Obeka, Emmanuel Onwubuya, Uwa Onwuchekwa, Benjamin Azubuike, Innocent Okoye
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_35_17  PMID:29063899
Background: Thromboembolic and hypercoagulable diseases are common life-threatening but treatable problems in hospital practice. Fortunately, anticoagulation is an efficacious management practice indicated for arterial, venous, and intracardiac thromboembolism. Clinicians in developing countries may have gaps in their knowledge of anticoagulation therapy/prophylaxis which could affect their clinical decision. Objectives: The study examined the knowledge and attitude of clinicians to anticoagulation therapy/prophylaxis in some tertiary hospitals in Nigeria. Methodology: The study was a multicenter survey. A pretested questionnaire was administered to clinicians in six tertiary hospitals in Southeast Nigeria. Results: A total of 528 questionnaires were returned by 419 (79.4%) residents and 109 (20.6%) consultants. We observed significant abysmal knowledge and lack of awareness of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) among most respondents irrespective of their job grades (P = 0.02, odds ratio [OR] 0.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.38–0.90). Their knowledge of anti-Xa assay as laboratory monitoring tool was also significantly inadequate (P = 0.001, OR 0.23, 95% CI 0.10–0.51). On statement analysis on their attitude to anticoagulation therapy/prophylaxis, “Do you think anticoagulation therapy/prophylaxis is clinically relevant” had the highest mean of 4.60, P = 0.01, and a high degree of agreement; while “Should hospital inpatient with > 3 days admission routinely receive anticoagulation/prophylaxis?” had the lowest mean of 2.27, P = 0.02, and a low degree of agreement. Conclusion: There is the need to upscale knowledge of anticoagulation agents and an attitude change to anticoagulation therapy/prophylaxis, especially on the DOACs through continuing medical education activities in emerging countries such as Nigeria.
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Demographic characteristics and visual status of patients undergoing cataract surgery at a tertiary hospital in Kano, Nigeria p. 170
Musbahu Sani Kurawa, Lawan Abdu
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_123_16  PMID:29063900
Objective/Purpose: To describe the demographic and baseline ocular characteristics, prevalence of blindness and visual impairment among patients undergoing extracapsular cataract extraction for age related cataract at the study hospital over a one year period. Materials/Patients: All consecutive patients aged 40 years and above identified with age related cataract in one or both eyes who voluntarily agree to participate were included. Methods: The study adhered to the tenets of the Helsinki declaration. Written informed consent was obtained from all eligible patients. All patients underwent basic eye examination by the ophthalmologist. Visual impairment was determined for each eye according to the standard WHO categorizations. Information obtained also included age, sex and history of previous cataract surgery. Data were recorded in manual tally sheets and on modified computer Cataract Surgery Record forms. Analyses were done using SPSS (version 16, SPSS Inc., Chicago, USA). Results: The participation rate was 91.2%. There were 495 eyes of 487 consecutive patients. This include 212 males and 275 females (M:F, 1:1.3). The age range was 40 to 99 years with a mean age of 62.76 ± 10.49 years (61.35 ± 9.75 years in men and 63.85±10.9 years in females). Most of the patients (n = 451; 92.6%, 95% CI: 89.9-94.6%) were aged 50 years and above. Sixty patients (12.3%, 95% CI: 9.6-15.5%) had cataract in both eyes, 427 (87.7%, 95% CI: 84.5-90.3%) were in one eye. Among these, preoperatively 16 (3.3%, 95% CI: 2.0-5.3%) had aphakia, 21 (4.3%, 95% CI: 2.8-6.5%) had uniocular pseudophakia. About 63.2% (95% CI: 58.9-67.4%) of patients had normal vision in the better eye (presenting VA ≥6/18). Overall 9.5% (95% CI: 7.3-12.7%) were bilaterally blind. About 96.8% of eyes (95% CI: 94.5-98.0%) undergoing cataract surgery were blind (presenting VA<3/60). Conclusion: The study highlights preponderance of females and high incidence of blinding cataract. Education and early disease awareness may play an important role in these patients and could improve cataract surgical services in our hospital..
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Eclampsia in rural Nigeria: The unmitigating catastrophe p. 175
Chidi Ochu Uzoma Esike, Ukaegbe Ikechi Chukwuemeka, Okechukwu Bonaventure Anozie, Justus Ndulue Eze, Obioma Christian Aluka, Deirdre Eilleen Twomey
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_46_16  PMID:29063901
Introduction: Eclampsia is one of the most dreaded causes of adverse outcomes of pregnancy worldwide. It is one of the greatest causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality world over. We do not know the prevalence, management outcome, and the devastation caused by this dreaded disease in our center hence the need for this work. Materials and Methods: This is a 7-year retrospective review of all cases of eclampsia managed in Mater Misericordiae Hospital Afikpo, a rural secondary cum referral Catholic Mission Hospital in Afikpo, Ebonyi State in Southeastern Nigeria. Results: The prevalence of eclampsia in our center is 1.12% or one case of eclampsia for every 89 women that delivered in our facility. The majority of the women that had eclampsia in our center 56 (71.8%) were primigravidae. Seventeen women (21.8%) had various antenatal complications with 4 or 23.6% presenting with intrauterine fetal deaths and two (11.8%) each with intrauterine growth restriction, and domestic violence, respectively. Thirty-five or 44.9% of the women were delivered by emergency lower segment cesarean section. Fifteen or 17.9% babies were dead giving a perinatal mortality rate of 174 per 1,000After delivery, and 3 (3.8%) of the women had postpartum hemorrhage. Two women (2.6%) died giving a maternal mortality ratio of 2564 per 100,000 deliveries. Conclusion: Eclampsia is a dreaded obstetric disease with adverse fetal and maternal consequences that are not mitigating, and no effort should be spared in managing it effectively including public enlightenment.
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Tumor-associated macrophages, angiogenesis, and tumor cell migration in oral squamous cell carcinoma p. 181
Samuel E Udeabor, Akinyele O Adisa, Anna Orlowska, Robert A Sader, Shahram Ghanaati
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_8_17  PMID:29063902
Objective: To investigate the relationship between tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), neovascularization, and tumor cell migration in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) of an African subpopulation. Materials and Methods: Twenty OSCC paraffin blocks underwent immunohistochemistry to TAM1 (CCR7), TAM2 (CD206), Twist, E-cadherin, N-cadherin, and CD34. The relative percentage of CCR7 + and CD206 + cells to overall immune cell population was calculated for three high power fields and an average was taken. TAM-related microvessel density (MVD) was determined as the mean of the three recorded values. Cases that had no CD34 + vessels adjacent to the TAMs region were regarded as having an MVD score of 0. Results: Ten cases (50%) expressed greater CCR7 activity than CD206, seven cases (35%) expressed approximately equal activity of CCR7 and CD206, while three cases (15%) expressed greater activity of CD206 than CCR7. Twist expression was strong in some cases with strong N-cadherin and weak E-cadherin, but the expression of Twist was not consistently high in all cases that expressed strong N-cadherin and weak E-cadherin. Conclusions: TAMs distribution suggested antitumor activity and the potential for tumor metastasis was only partly due to Twist-mediated epithelial–mesenchymal transition.
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Iron and vitamin D levels among autism spectrum disorders children p. 186
Abdulbari Bener, Azhar O Khattab, Dinesh Bhugra, Georg F Hoffmann
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_17_17  PMID:29063903
Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate iron deficiency anemia and Vitamin D deficiency among autism children and to assess the importance of risk factors (determinants). Subjects and Methods: This was a case–control study conducted among children suffering from autism at the Hamad Medical Corporation in Qatar. A total of 308 cases and equal number of controls were enrolled. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic was the instrument used for diagnosis of Autism. Results: The mean age (±standard deviation, in years) for autistic versus control children was 5.39 ± 1.66 versus 5.62 ± 1.81, respectively. The mean value of serum iron levels in autistic children was severely reduced and significantly lower than in control children (74.13 ± 21.61 μg/dL with a median 74 in autistic children 87.59 ± 23.36 μg/dL in controls) (P = 0.003). Similarly, the study revealed that Vitamin D deficiency was considerably more common among autistic children (18.79 ± 8.35 ng/mL) as compared to healthy children (22.18 ± 9.00 ng/mL) (P = 0.004). Finally, mean values of hemoglobin, ferritin, magnesium; potassium, calcium; phosphorous; glucose, alkaline phosphate, hematocrit, white blood cell, and mean corpuscular volume were all statistically significantly higher in healthy control children as compared to autistic children (P < 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that serum iron deficiency, serum calcium levels, serum Vitamin D levels; ferritin, reduced physical activity; child order, body mass index percentiles, and parental consanguinity can all be considered strong predictors and major factors associated with autism spectrum disorders. Conclusion: This study suggests that deficiency of iron and Vitamin D as well as anemia were more common in autistic compared to control children.
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Study of carotid intimal medial thickness in essential hypertension with or without left ventricular hypertrophy p. 192
Himanshu Khutan, Simmi Aggarwal, KS Kajal, Ravinder Garg, Rupinderjeet Kaur, Amanpreet Kaur
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_9_17  PMID:29063904
Introduction: Hypertension and atherosclerosis though separate entities, are interrelated as hypertension plays an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. This study was undertaken to study the association of carotid intimal medial thickness with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in hypertensive patients. Materials and Methods: Hundred hypertensives (JNC-7, Stage 1 and 2) between 30 and 55 years were enrolled in this prospective observational study conducted at a tertiary care teaching institute of Punjab, India. Electrocardiogram, Carotid Doppler, and Echocardiography were carried out in addition to routine biochemical investigations. Results: Increased carotid intimal medial thickness (CIMT) had statistically significant association with age, duration of hypertension, high systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), left ventricular hypertrophy and left ventricular mass index but was not associated with body mass index, low-density lipoproteins, and total cholesterol. Conclusions: LVH and arterial wall changes occur concurrently, and therefore, management of hypertension should not be limited just to control of BP but should also include therapy for carotid plaques and increased CIMT.
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CASE REPORT Top

A rare case of bleeding disorder: Glanzmann's thrombasthenia p. 196
Jami Swathi, A Gowrishankar, SA Jayakumar, Karun Jain
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_59_16  PMID:29063905
Background: Glanzmann's thrombasthenia (GT) is a rare bleeding disorder, which is characterized by a lack of platelet aggregation. It is characterized by qualitative or quantitative abnormalities of the platelet membrane glycoprotein IIb/IIIa. Physiologically, this platelet receptor normally binds several adhesive plasma proteins, and this facilitates attachment and aggregation of platelets to ensure thrombus formation at sites of vascular injury. The lack of resultant platelet aggregation in GT leads to mucocutaneous bleeding whose manifestation may be clinically variable, ranging from easy bruising to severe and potentially life-threatening hemorrhages. Objective: To highlight this rare but potentially life-threating disorder, GT. Case Report: We report a case of GT that was first detected because of the multiple episodes of gum bleeding. The patient was an 18-year-old girl who presented with a history of repeated episodes of gum bleeding since childhood. Till the first visit to our hospital, she had not been diagnosed with GT despite a history of bleeding tendency, notably purpura in areas of easy bruising, gum bleeding, and prolonged bleeding time after abrasions and insect stings. GT was diagnosed on the basis of prolonged bleeding time, lack of platelet aggregation with adenosine di phosphate, epinephrine and collagen. Conclusion: GT should always be considered as differential diagnosis while evaluating any case of bleeding disorder.
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LETTER TO EDITOR Top

Dual-energy computed tomographic visualization of urate crystals in a case of familial gout in Western India p. 199
Sonal Saran, Pushpinder Singh Khera
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_20_17  PMID:29063906
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