Annals of African Medicine
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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
July-September 2019
Volume 18 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 121-183

Online since Wednesday, August 14, 2019

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REVIEW ARTICLE  

Inflammation and cancer p. 121
Nitin Singh, Deepak Baby, Jagadish Prasad Rajguru, Pankaj B Patil, Savita S Thakkannavar, Veena Bhojaraj Pujari
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_56_18  
Inflammation is often associated with the development and progression of cancer. The cells responsible for cancer-associated inflammation are genetically stable and thus are not subjected to rapid emergence of drug resistance; therefore, the targeting of inflammation represents an attractive strategy both for cancer prevention and for cancer therapy. Tumor-extrinsic inflammation is caused by many factors, including bacterial and viral infections, autoimmune diseases, obesity, tobacco smoking, asbestos exposure, and excessive alcohol consumption, all of which increase cancer risk and stimulate malignant progression. In contrast, cancer-intrinsic or cancer-elicited inflammation can be triggered by cancer-initiating mutations and can contribute to malignant progression through the recruitment and activation of inflammatory cells. Both extrinsic and intrinsic inflammations can result in immunosuppression, thereby providing a preferred background for tumor development. The current review provides a link between inflammation and cancer development.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Palliative external beam radiotherapy for advanced breast cancer patients with brain metastasis in the university college hospital Ibadan p. 127
Hassan Ibrahim, Aliyu Ango Yaroko
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_42_18  
Background: Brain metastasis is a dreaded complication that significantly reduces the quality of life in breast cancer patients. The treatment options are limited by the inability of many chemotherapeutic agents to cross the blood–brain barrier. Surgery also has a limited role, except in few selected patients with oligometastasis. Therefore, whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) remains the available option that gives a gratifying result. However, the benefit of this treatment modality in our resource-poor environment needs to be investigated. Materials and Methods: The data of breast cancer patients with brain metastasis who were treated with WBRT using cobalt-60 equipment between 2005 and 2009 were retrospectively collected from the departmental medical record unit. The information extracted included biodata, presenting symptoms, imaging modality for confirmation of brain metastasis, treatment records, performance status pre-WBRT and 4 weeks post-WBRT, and other supportive treatments. Results: A total of 52 female patients were reviewed between 2005 and 2009. The mean age of patients was 44.7 years. The common clinical features on presentation were headache, nausea, and visual impairment in 30.8% of patients with the WHO performance status score ranging between 2 and 4. Patients with more than three brain deposits accounted for 71.2% of all the brain metastases. The mean radiation dose used for WBRT was 30 Gy in 10 fractions, and total responses recorded were 86.5% with 53.8% complete improvement in patients' performance status 4 weeks after WBRT treatment. Conclusion: WBRT is an effective treatment modality for patients with brain metastasis in our resource-poor environment. However, improvement of patients' performance status declined with advancing age.
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A prospective randomized comparative study of targeted versus empirical prophylactic antibiotics in the prevention of infective complications following transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy p. 132
Alaba Fredrich Doherty, Stephen Odunayo Ikuerowo, Emmanuel Ajibola Jeje, Nasiru Akanmu Ibrahim, Olumuyiwa Louis Ojongbede, Wasiu Bamidele Mutiu, Olufunmilade Akinfolarin Omisanjo, Abimbola Ayodeji Abolarinwa
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_48_18  
Background: It is established that antibiotic prophylaxis prevents infection following transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy. This study compares the infective complications in transrectal prostate biopsy (TRPB) in empirical versus targeted prophylactic antibiotics. Patients and Methods: Urine and rectal swabs were obtained prior to TRPB. They were randomized into targeted antibiotic (TA) and empirical antibiotic (EA) groups. TA had prophylactic antibiotics according to rectal swab culture, whereas EA had the standard parenteral ciprofloxacin. They were followed up weekly for 4 weeks. Chi-square or Fisher's exact tests were used to compare categorical variables, Student's “t”-test was used to compare means of numerical variables, and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: One hundred patients were studied, fifty in each group. The mean age was 66 years, with men aged 60–69 years accounting for 50% of the study population. Providencia stuartii, Escherichia coli, and Citrobacter freundii were the most predominant bacteria identified in the prebiopsy rectal swab culture, with resistance to ciprofloxacin (57%) being much more common than that to levofloxacin (21%). Postbiopsy infection occurred in one (2%) patient in the TA group and five (10%) patients in the EA group. Difference in the infection rate between the two groups was statistically significant (P = 0.042). Three of the patients with postbiopsy infection in the EA group had urosepsis and required hospitalization. Fluoroquinolone-resistant bacteria were responsible for infection in all the six patients. TA reduced the risk of postbiopsy infection by 5.6 folds. Conclusion: TA was associated with a decreased risk of infection in TRPB.
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Outcome of acute urinary tract infections caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli with phenotypically demonstrable virulence factors p. 138
Unnimaya Pullanhi, Sadia Khan, Vivek Vinod, Karthika Mohan, Anil Kumar
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_49_18  
Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI) caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains is one of the most important community-acquired infections in the world. The presence of virulence factors is closely related with the pathogenesis of UTI. Methods: The present study was conducted on 150 isolates of UPEC obtained from symptomatic and asymptomatic cases of UTIs with significant counts (≥105 CFU/ml) during 1 year. UPEC isolates were studied for hemolysis on 5% sheep blood agar, mannose-sensitive hemagglutination (MSHA), mannose-resistant hemagglutination (MRHA), and biofilm formation by recommended methods. Patients with UTI due to UPEC showing virulence factors were evaluated for the treatment received and the outcome of treatment. These were compared with the outcomes of patients whose culture samples grew UPEC without demonstrable virulence factors. Results: The study showed hemolysin production in 40% of the isolates. Forty percent of the isolates showed the presence of P fimbriae (MRHA) and 60% showed Type 1 fimbriae (MSHA). Biofilm formation capacity of all UPEC isolates was classified into three categories, strong biofilm producers (4%), moderate biofilm producers (88%), and nonbiofilm producers (8%). Patients harboring all three virulence factors showed 76% recovery compared to patients harboring strains with no demonstrable virulence factors, who showed 100% recovery. Conclusion: The present study has shown the production of various virulent factors and developing drug resistance in UPEC. Treatment outcomes of patients harboring strains with no virulence factors seem to be better than the ones which contain multiple virulence factors. UPEC occurs because of multiple virulence factors. Biofilm formation and MRHA are more likely to be seen in catheterized patients. The drug resistance among UPEC is on rise; therefore, the selection of appropriate antibiotics (after antibiotic susceptibility testing) is must for proper treatment of patients and to avoid emergence of drug resistance. Significant number of the UPEC isolates was sensitive to nitrofurantoin, and half of the isolates were sensitive to cotrimoxazole, so treatment is by giving these drugs orally.
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Hyperhomocysteinemia and folate levels in normal healthy Nigerians living in Zaria: Subanalysis of ABU homocysteine cross-sectional survey p. 143
Obiageli Uzoamaka Onyemelukwe, Bilkisu Bello Maiha
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_53_18  
Background: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia and folate status in a sample of normal healthy Nigerians living in Zaria as well as assess the relationship between homocysteine, folate, and blood pressure (BP) levels. Methods: It was a cross-sectional analytical study carried out among 65 normal healthy volunteers aged 18–65 years. Participants were randomly selected from willing patient escorts, hospital employees, and willing staff presenting at the Ahmadu Bello University Medical Centre, Zaria and Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria. The percentage of participants who had high homocysteine levels as well as their plasma folate status was determined. Results: There were 9.2% with hyperhomocysteinemia >15 μmol/L and 51% with hyperhomocysteinemia >10 μmol/L. The mean plasma homocysteine level was 10.8 ± 2.7 μmol/L with male and female values of 10.7 ± 2.6 and 10.8 ± 2.8, respectively (P = 0.87). The mean plasma folate level was high (116.7 ± 44.0 ng/mL) with male value of (111.5 ± 44.9 ng/mL) which did not differ significantly (P = 0.37) from that of females (121.4 ± 43.3 ng/mL). Homocysteine showed a positive significant (P = 0.01) relationship with folate but not with BP's (P > 0.05). Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia in normal healthy Northern-Nigerians which cannot be accounted for by suboptimal folate levels. Hyperhomocysteinemia may not be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in normal healthy Nigerians despite its high levels as it showed no significant relationship with BP.
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The normal range of maximal incisal opening in pediatric population and its association with physical variables p. 153
Stuti Kumari, Divya C Reddy, Santhosh T Paul
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_54_18  
Background: Restricted mouth opening is a common complaint in patients suffering from temporomandibular joint disorders, ankylosis, impaired masticatory muscle function, rheumatic disease, infection, or malignancy. As with any disease, the aim of treatment of disorders affecting mouth opening is to restore the mouth opening to its normal value. It is thus of paramount importance to determine the normal value. Objective: To establish the normal range of maximal incisal opening (MIO) in children aged 4 to 15 years and to investigate the correlation between MIO and age, gender, height, and body weight. Materials and Methods: Six hundred and two children from various schools in Bengaluru, India, participated in the study. The children were divided into the following age groups: 4–5, 6–7, 8–9, 10–11, 12–13, and 14–15 years. MIO for the children was recorded using Therabite® scale. The measurements of MIO were then correlated with gender, body weight, and height of the children in different age groups. Results: It was observed that MIO gradually increased with age with a mean MIO of 41.34 mm at 4–5 years to a mean MIO of 51.73 mm at 14–15 years. The mean MIO value for males (48.90 ± 6.49 mm) was found to be higher when compared to that of females (46.17 ± 5.58 mm). The results indicated a strong positive correlation of MIO with height and weight. Conclusion: MIO gradually increased with age in both the genders, and a strong positive correlation of MIO with height and weight was observed.
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Intima-media thickness of femoral arteries and carotids among an adult hypertensive Nigerian population: A case–control study to assess their use as surrogate markers of atherosclerosis p. 158
Mayowa Abimbola Soneye, Ademola Joseph Adekanmi, Millicent Olubunmi Obajimi, Akinyemi Aje
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_57_18  
Background: Increased intima-media thickness (IMT) is an established and important surrogate marker for atherosclerosis. Intima-media thickening in the femoral arteries occur earlier and reflect the true extent of generalized atherosclerosis better than in the carotids. Aims: To study the ultrasound-detected morphological changes in the common femoral versus carotid artery wall. Patients and Methods: A case-control study design was used, with 61 adult hypertensive as cases and 61 age-, sex- and BMI-matched normotensive as controls. Variables were participants' characteristics, cardiovascular risk factors, and ultrasonographically evaluated IMT of the carotid and femoral arteries. Results: A total of 122 participants were studied. The mean femoral IMT in hypertensives and controls on the right and left was 0.63 ± 0.07mm vs. 0.52 ± 0.06mm [P < 0.0001] and 0.69 ± 0.0 mm vs. 0.55 ± 0.05mm [P < 0.0001]. Also, the mean carotid IMT among hypertensives and controls on the right =0.80 ±0.15mm vs. 0.64 ± 0.06mm [P < 0.0001], and 0.91 ± 0.22mm vs. 0.65 ± 0.06mm [P < 0.0001] on the left. Significant correlation was observed between IMT and age (B = 0.006, P < 0.001 and B = 0.003, P < 0.001), hypertension (B = 0.205, P < 0.001 and B = 0.122, p<0.001), and duration of hypertension (B = 0.02, P < 0.001 and B = 0.006, P = 0.02) the femoral and carotid arteries respectively. Conclusion: The femoral and the carotid artery show similar significantly increased IMT in hypertensive adults. The femoral IMT appears to be a good surrogate marker of atherosclerosis among hypertensive Nigerians.
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Prevalence and predictors of low back pain in a Southern Nigerian hospital p. 167
Timothy Eyo Nottidge, Bolanle A Nottidge, Udeme E Ekrikpo
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_59_18  
Background: Low back pain (LBP) is the most common musculoskeletal disease in adults. The data on LBP from Sub-Saharan Africa are inadequate. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and analyze the predictors of LBP among hospital staff in a Nigerian tertiary hospital. Materials and Methods: The study participants were recruited using an opt-in approach, with the aim of including representative numbers from each professional cadre. Each participant gave formal consent. Ethical clearance was obtained. Results: Five hundred and sixty-three participants with the mean age of 36.0 ± 8.3 years and 62% female were interviewed. The point prevalence of LBP was 234 (42% [95% confidence interval [CI]: 37%–45%]). Profession was a significant predictor of LBP (P = 0.001) – nurses (53% [95% CI 43%–63%]), administrative officers (49% [95% CI 40%–59%]), engineers (50% [95% CI 24%–76%]), and health information staff (50% [95% CI 26%–75%]) had the highest prevalence. In univariate regression, female gender, increasing age, body mass index ≥25 kg/m2, and frequently adopting a bending posture, were significantly associated with LBP, while in multivariate regression, only the female gender was a significant predictor. Conclusion: The pattern of both the professions at risk, due to the well-known mechanisms of poor ergonomics, and the marked risk for the female gender, in the hospital setting, suggest underresourced work and societal environments as the underlying factors-more research is needed.
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CASE REPORT Top

Isolated testicular metastasis from prostatic adenocarcinoma p. 173
Aminu M. C. Dahiru, Nasiru Raheem, Haruna Asura Nggada, Abdullahi Muzzamil, Yunusa Dahiru
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_60_18  
Metastatic carcinomas to the testes are rare with prostate adenocarcinoma being the most common. Reported cases of metastatic carcinoma to the testes are usually associated with metastasis to other sites. Metastasis to the testis alone without associated secondaries to other sites can occur and so far, few cases have been reported globally. Due to the rarity of such presentation and the need for proper evaluation of orchiectomy specimens for prostatic adenocarcinoma, we report a case of an 84-year-old with isolated metastasis to the left testes. This was discovered incidentally the following orchiectomy as a form of hormonal therapy for prostatic adenocarcinoma.
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LETTERS TO EDITOR Top

Do skin lesions in the young sound an alarm p. 176
Anupam Dey
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_39_18  
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Large extraskeletal ewing sarcoma of the hand: A rare entity p. 177
Sonal Saran, Annu Kharbanda, Sunil Malik
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_55_18  
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Giant cystic schwannoma of the cauda equina p. 180
Meryem Himmiche, Mohammed Benzagmout, Badreeddine Alami, Imane Staouni Benabdellah, Khalid Chakour, Mohamed E Chaoui
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_61_18  
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