Annals of African Medicine
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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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January-March 2020
Volume 19 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-74

Online since Friday, March 13, 2020

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REVIEW ARTICLE  

Cytotoxic-induced heart failure among breast cancer patients in Nigeria: A call to prevent today's cancer patients from being tomorrow's cardiac patients p. 1
Raphael Anakwue
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_24_19  PMID:32174608
We report three cases of heart failure (HF) associated with the use of cytotoxic drugs such as anthracycline, cyclophosphamide, and 5-fluorouracil in the treatment of breast cancer in Nigerians. The patients had systolic and diastolic HF: HF with reduced ejection fraction and preserved ejection fraction. The prevalence of breast cancer is increasing across Africa, and cytotoxics are some of the most common and best drugs used during management. The cardiotoxicity caused by these drugs limits their use as chemotherapeutic agents. Cytotoxic-induced HF is a preventable and manageable cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Nigeria and Africa. This article discusses the pathophysiology of cytotoxic-induced HF and presents the risk factors that impair cardiovascular function. The importance of proper assessment and the prophylactic and therapeutic measures in the management of cytotoxic-induced HF are emphasized. The peculiar challenges in the management of cytotoxic-induced HF in Nigeria were also discussed. The need for early involvement of cardiologists by oncologists to improve on the chemotherapeutic and cardiovascular outcome in the management of patients with breast cancer was stressed. Perhaps, it is time to birth a new discipline of cardiooncology in Nigeria.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Doppler ultrasonographic evaluation of lower limbs deep-vein thrombosis in a teaching hospital, Northwestern Nigeria p. 8
Muhammad Zaria Ibrahim, Joseph Bako Igashi, Suleiman Lawal, Bello Usman, Abdullahi Zubair Mubarak, Hafsatu Maiwada Suleiman
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_62_18  PMID:32174609
Background: Deep-venous thrombosis (DVT) of lower limbs is one of the most common causes of death caused by pulmonary embolism. Many medical and surgical disorders are complicated by DVT. B-mode and color Doppler imaging are needed for the early diagnosis of DVT to prevent complications and sequalae of DVT. Objectives: The objectives of this study are to evaluate the role of Doppler ultrasound in diagnosing DVT of lower limbs and to study the spectrum of findings in patients with DVT in Zaria. Methodology: A retrospective study was carried out on patients who had Venous Doppler Scan in the Department of Radiology ABUTH, Zaria, Nigeria, for suspected DVT over a period of 4 years from February 2014 to January 2018. Scans were done using DC-3 and DC-6 Mindray Ultrasound machines (2009 and 2013 Models, respectively, Shantou, China) coupled with high-frequency (7.5–12 MHz) linear and low-frequency curvilinear (2–5 MHz) transducers. Analysis of cases of DVT was performed in terms of age, sex, clinical features, predisposing conditions, anatomic distribution, stage, and pattern of thrombus involvement in the veins. Data were analyzed using the SPSS version 20.0 and value of P < 0.005 was considered as statistically significant. Results: A total of 252 patients' results were reviewed which consisted of 122 males (48.4%) and 130 females (51.6%). The patients' ages ranged from 11 to 80 years, averaging 45.5 ± 9.56 years. The most common indication for Doppler request was leg swellings. The most common risk factor for DVT was malignancy (36%), cardiac disorders (18%), and traumas (14%). Sixty-six (61%) cases showed left-sided and 26 (24%) right-sided, whereas 16 (15%) cases showed bilateral lower limb involvement. Predominant thrombus was above-knee region with 54% in the superficial femoral vein. Chronic stage was seen in 46 (42%) cases, subacute in 44 (41%) cases, and acute in 18 (17%) cases. Conclusion: Middle–aged females, left-sided leg, and above-knee segment were predominantly affected with DVT; hence, this buttresses the need for Doppler ultrasound in the diagnosis of DVT in all patients.
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Various causative factors and associated complications of childhood obesity in Jeddah, Western Region, Saudi Arabia Highly accessed article p. 15
Abdulmoein Eid Al-Agha, Yusra Mohammed Mabkhoot, Ashjan Salem Bahwirith, Arwa Nabil Mohammed, Rahaf Ragbi, Elham Allhabi, Bashaer Khalid Dumyati, Asmaa Milyani
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_8_19  PMID:32174610
Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate the causative factors and complications attributable to obesity in children living in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Methods: This is a retrospective study encompassing a sample size of 151 children and adolescents between the ages of 4 and 20 years. Data were collected through reviewing medical records, medical files on the hospital electronic system, and clinical interviews conducted with legal guardians. The date of the study was from January to June 2018, and the study was carried out in Jeddah, Western Region, Saudi Arabia. Results: Data were entered, coded, cleaned, and analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (IBM SPSS), version 22. The analysis was done by assessing the significance of various risk factors and sequelae in their contribution to pediatric obesity by one-way ANOVA for nominal variables of more than two categories and independent-samples t-test for the nominal variables with two categories. The sample was 47% of the male gender, whereas females made for the remaining 53%. The causation of obesity was distributed among the following factors: an unhealthy diet, a sedentary lifestyle, medications such as glucocorticoids, and complications attributed to obesity including gastroesophageal reflux, hypertension, precocious puberty, sleep apnea, psychological disturbances, and fatty liver diseases. Conclusion: Environmental factors were found to be the most predominant cause, where the majority of children were found to be leading a sedentary lifestyle, following an unhealthy diet, and skipping meals. The most recurring complications involved psychosocial and behavioral abnormalities, and among the medical consequences, gastroesophageal reflux and obstructive sleep apnea were the most prevalent.
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Effectiveness of an ear and hearing care training program for frontline health workers: A before and after study p. 20
Fatimah I Tsiga-Ahmed, Abdulazeez Ahmed
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_9_19  PMID:32174611
Background: Delegating ear and hearing care (EHC) tasks to frontline health workers may help to improve muchneeded access to this specialized care. Primary healthcare workers (PHCWs) need to acquire relevant knowledge and skill to recognize, refer, and/or treat simple ear problems. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of an EHC training program for PHCWs. Methodology: The training intervention was a 2day course based on an adapted WHO training resource in EHC for frontline workers. A pre and posttest study design was undertaken with the assessment of EHC at two time points using the same questionnaire at baseline and at completion of the training. Results: One hundred and ninety PHCWs were recruited for the study. Overall, there was a statistically significant improvement from baseline to course completion. However, participants' scores in the domain of knowledge for risk factors were slightly low compared to other domains (54.3%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 52.0%–56.6%), and this improved significantly following the training (72.7%, 95% CI: 71.0%–74.0%). A potential confounder in this evaluation may be that of the scores recorded at pretest, which may change in the posttest due to regression to the mean phenomenon. Conclusion: The findings from this study indicate that the training program demonstrated the potential to be an effective way to improve knowledge of EHC, and we suggest the inclusion of “primary ear care” as a component of primary health care.
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Open adrenalectomy: A 20-year review of our experience in a developing country p. 26
Mehmet Arif Usta, Mehmet Ulusahin, Etem Alhan, Akif Cinel, Irfan Nuhoglu
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_10_19  PMID:32174612
Introduction: The aim of this study was to present our 20-year experience regarding open adrenalectomy (OA) during laparoscopic era in a developing country Turkey. Materials and Methods: A retrospective and descriptive study of patients with adrenal mass undergoing OA in the surgery department of our hospital, between January 1993 and January 2013, was carried out. All operations were performed by two surgeons. Results: Ninety patients who underwent OA in our clinic were reviewed retrospectively. The mean number of adrenal operations per month during this period was 0.38 ± 0.12. The patient included 35 men (38.8%) and 55 women (61.2%), with a mean age of 46.4 ± 17 years. The mean body mass index was 28.4 ± 5.25, and the mean American Society of Anesthesiologists score was 2.6 ± 0.57. The mean operative time was 88 ± 27 min. The mean maximum diameter of all the lesions was 4.8 ± 1.3 cm (range: 1.2–21 cm). The mean blood loss was 118 ± 23 ml during the operations. Postoperative complications were observed in four patients (5.5%). There was no mortality. The length of hospital stay was 6.2 ± 2.1 days. The most frequent type of the histological type was benign adenoma (48.8%). Conclusion: OA in a developing country is a safe method as an alternative for laparoscopic adrenalectomy which has a difficult learning curve.
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Oscillometric blood pressure profile of adolescent secondary school students in Abakaliki metropolis p. 31
Uchechukwu C Ukoh, Fortune A Ujunwa, Uzoamaka Vivian Muoneke, Pius C Manyike, Clifford O Okike, Bede C Ibe
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_21_19  PMID:32174613
Context: Adolescence is characterized by a tremendous pace in growth, biological, and psychosocial changes. This may translate to rapid increases in anthropometric parameters and indulgence in youth risk behaviors, and these are the risk factors for arterial hypertension (HTN).Aim: This study aimed to determine the oscillometric blood pressure (BP) profile of apparently healthy secondary school adolescents in Abakaliki metropolis and its relationship with sex and anthropometric variables. Subjects and Methods: This multistage process selected 2401 students among those aged 10–19 years spanning from August 2015 to January 2016. BP was measured using the oscillometric method. Information on modifiable risk factors for HTN was obtained. Anthropometric parameters were measured. Data were analyzed with Student's t-test, analysis of variance, and correlation analysis. Results: The mean age (years) of the study population was 15.12 ± 2.29. The mean systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) were 106.72 ± 11.37 mmHg and 63.60 ± 7.34 mmHg, respectively. Females had significantly higher mean DBP but with no significant gender difference in mean SBP. The means of anthropometric parameters were 49.19 ± 10.28 kg, 1.54 ± 0.10 m, and 20.46 ± 2.86 kg/m2 for weight, height, and body mass index, respectively, and all showed significant gender differences, with females having higher values except for height. A relatively low rate of indulgence in alcohol use compared to another study in the same region as well as a significant association of alcohol use among those found to have HTN was noted. The prevalence of HTN was 4.6%, which was significantly higher in females. Conclusions: Routine BP monitoring is recommended for adolescents, especially those with prevailing risk factors including a family history of HTN, obesity, and substance and alcohol misuse. Early detection will help in mitigating the effect of these cardiovascular risk factors.
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Screening at the dental office: An opportunity for bridging the gap in the early diagnosis of hypertension and diabetes in Ghana p. 40
Paa-Kwesi Blankson, Francis Kwamin, Aaron B. Osei Asibey
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_22_19  PMID:32174614
Background: The prevalence of hypertension and diabetes is increasing in Ghana and sub-Saharan Africa. Screening is a useful tool in improving the early detection of both diseases to reduce the mortality and morbidity associated with the conditions. This study set out to determine the prevalence of patients with hypertension and hyperglycemia attending a dental clinic in Accra. Methods: A cross-sectional study, modeling a screening exercise, was conducted in a major dental clinic in Accra. Hypertension and diabetes were screened for with serial blood pressure checks at rest and random blood glucose measurements, respectively. Other variables were the pulse rate, the respiratory rate, and the background characteristics of respondents. Data were analyzed with Stata Version 14, and descriptive statistics were generated and reported. Results: There were a total of 175 participants in the study, comprising 76 males (43.4%) and 99 females (56.6%). This represented a male-to-female ratio of 0.8:1. The ages ranged from 18 to 86 years, with the median and mean ages of 40 years and 43.1 years (±16.9), respectively. This study found the prevalence of hypertension and hyperglycemia i the dental clinic to be 31.4% and 24.6%, respectively. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrate the importance of the dental clinic in detecting both undiagnosed hypertension and diabetes, as well as those who have previously been diagnosed, but do not have their blood pressure and blood sugar under adequate control. With efficient referrals and follow-up systems in place at dental offices, they could be harnessed as a fertile place for hypertension and diabetes screening.
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Late referral and associated factors among chronic kidney disease outpatients in Southern Nigeria p. 47
Enajite I Okaka, Oluseyi A Adejumo, Ayodeji A Akinbodewa
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_26_19  PMID:32174615
Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a recognized noncommunicable disease that contributes to the global disease burden. Studies on late referral (LR) of CKD patients to the nephrologist have reported incidence rates of 22%–58% according to the definition of LR used. CKD patients who present late to the nephrologist tend to have poorer outcomes with increased morbidity and mortality. Aim: The aim of the study is to determine the prevalence of LR and associated factors among CKD outpatients. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional observational study, in which CKD patients attending the renal outpatient clinic of two tertiary hospitals over a period of 6 months, were recruited. LR was defined as commencement of renal replacement therapy within 3 months after the first presentation to a nephrologist. Results: A total of 181 participants were recruited during the period of study; 114 were men. One hundred and twelve participants (61.8%) had stage 5 CKD, of which 97 had commenced maintenance hemodialysis. The prevalence of LR was 44.8% (81/181) (95% confidence interval: 37.4%–51.9%). Lack of funds was the most frequent reason given by participants who delayed after formal referral to a nephrologist. Being a known diabetic was associated with LR. Age, gender, level of education, occupation, being a known hypertensive, or known diabetic were not significant predictors of LR. Conclusion: Prevalence of LR is high. Education of medical practitioners, patients, and the general public on early symptoms and physical signs of kidney disease is required. Initiation of all-encompassing health insurance scheme is necessary to solve the problem of lack of funds for medical consultation and treatment.
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Young Peoples' support for a smoke-free campus policy: A case for smoke-free campuses in the statewide smoking law in Lagos State, Nigeria p. 53
Yetunde Morenike Atiba, Tope Olubodun, Oluwakemi Ololade Odukoya
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_27_19  PMID:32174616
Background: Smoke-free policies are increasingly being enacted in several countries. In 2014, Lagos State, the commercial capital of Nigeria, enacted a statewide smoke-free policy; however, university campuses were excluded from the list of public places where smoking would be disallowed. This study aimed to assess students' support for smoke-free campus policies, their attitudes, and exposure toward secondhand smoke (SHS). Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out among 421 university undergraduates in two premier universities in the state. Respondents were selected using a multistage sampling method, and the data were collected using a pretested self-administered questionnaire. Results: Many (55.4%) of the respondents agreed that students who are non-smokers have the right to inhale smoke-free air on campuses and expressed feelings of irritation (57.1%) or anger (17.1%) when exposed to SHS on campus. Majority (80.1%) of the respondents were in support of a smoke-free policy on their campus and in favor of a ban on smoking in enclosed spaces on campus (79.6%). Exposure to SHS on campus was high, as one in five respondents were exposed to SHS in their hostel rooms (19.9%) and 44.9% were exposed in outdoor campus spaces in the preceding week. There was a statistically significant association between respondents' age, gender, smoking status, and attitudes toward SHS and support for a smoke-free campus policy. Conclusion: Although the majority of the students were non-smokers, significant exposure to SHS on campuses still exists. There is a huge support for smoke-free campus policies. The state government should consider including campuses on the list of smoke-free public spaces in the review of the statewide smoking law.
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Maternal and perinatal outcomes of birth preparedness and complication readiness in recently delivered women of a Southwestern Nigerian Town p. 60
John Osaigbovoh Imaralu, Inyang Franklin Ani, Atinuke Olukemi Olaleye, Ebunoluwa Jaiyesimi, Abimbola Afolabi-Imaralu, Odutola O Odugbemi
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_29_19  
Context: Birth preparedness and complication readiness (BPCR) have been shown to increase knowledge of danger signs and enhance access to skilled obstetric care. Previous studies have focused on intermediate outcomes of BPCR such as utilization of skilled care for pregnancy and delivery. Aims: This study aims to determine the maternal and perinatal outcomes associated with birth preparedness and complication readiness. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study involving 827 recently delivered women, attending selected health facilities in Ikenne, southwestern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: BPCR was determined from a set of eight indicators that were developed by the John Hopkin's Bloomberg School of Public Health. Statistical Analysis: The data were analyzed using SPSS version 21. Bivariate analysis was done using Chi-square test, and binary logistic regression model was used to assess factors related to BPCR practice among respondents. The level of statistical significance was set to P < 0.05. Results: BPCR was observed in 470/827 (56.8%) of the participants. Only a minority had knowledge of financial – 125/827 (15.1%) and transportation assistance – 56/827 (6.8%). Knowledge of ≥ 5 danger signs of pregnancy was also low, 286/827 (34.6%). Institutional delivery was in only 331/827 (40%), and it depended on being birth prepared and complication ready (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =0.534, 95% confidence interval [CI] =0.319–0.893). Significantly more perinatal deaths occurred to women who were not birth prepared (AOR = 2.951, 95% CI = 1.436–6.062), although no difference existed for perinatal (AOR = 1.202, 95% CI = 0.653–2.214) and maternal (AOR = 0.744, 95% CI = 0.452–1.226) morbidities. Conclusion: The knowledge and practice of key indicators of BPCR that reflect utilization of community resources in Ikenne Local Government Area is very poor. BPCR was an important determinant of perinatal survival.
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CASE REPORT Top

Complex regional pain syndrome: A case report and review of the literature p. 68
Nura H Alkali, Abdulrahman M Al-Tahan, Mohammad Al-Majed, Husam Al-Tahan
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_23_19  PMID:32174618
Background: Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a rare neuropathic pain disorder associated with severe pain, muscle weakness, limb edema and hyperhidrosis. Predisposing factors include fracture, surgery, stroke and spinal cord injury. CRPS may recur in the same limb or spread to other limbs to complicate management. Case Report: A 20-year old female with CRPS Type-I had sequential spread to all four limbs despite different treatment modalities, including medical therapy, nerve block, radiofrequency ablation and surgical sympathectomy. We discuss the therapeutic challenges and reviewed recent literature on current treatment options for CRPS Type-I. Conclusion: A multidisciplinary approach is needed for effective management of CRPS, and refractory disease may respond to intrathecal baclofen with morphine.
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LETTERS TO EDITOR Top

Incidentally detected primary hyperparathyroidism p. 71
Sonal Saran, Arushi Dhall, Yash Sharma, Tanvi Khanna
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_11_19  PMID:32174619
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Prevalence of erectile dysfunction among Greek men with type 2 diabetes mellitus p. 73
Athanasia K Papazafiropoulou, Konstantina Anagnostopoulou, Konstantina Petropoulou, Andreas Melidonis
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_32_19  PMID:32174620
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