Annals of African Medicine
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July-September 2017
Volume 16 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 95-148

Online since Wednesday, June 28, 2017

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COMMENTARY  

Sonographic assessment of urolithiasis in university of Abuja teaching hospital, Nigeria p. 95
Kasonde Bowa
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_36_16  PMID:28671147
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REVIEW ARTICLE Top

Randomized controlled trials: Ethical and scientific issues in the choice of placebo or active control p. 97
Joseph Ogirima Ovosi, Muhammed Sani Ibrahim, Beatrice Ohunene Bello-Ovosi
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_211_16  PMID:28671148
The use of control group in clinical trials has been universally acclaimed by researchers to effectively help discriminate between the actual effects of an intervention and those arising from other factors. However, the choice of the control that provided both scientific and ethical acceptability among researchers has been a source of intense debate. We conducted a literature search on the use of placebo and active controls in clinical trials and X-ray the arguments for and against both choices in randomized control trials and concluded by highlighting the scenarios where the use of placebo is justified.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Evaluation of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and cystatin C as early markers of diabetic nephropathy p. 101
Zeba Siddiqi, Ritu Karoli, Anupama Kaul, Jalees Fatima, Shishir Varshney, Mohd Sameer Beg
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_12_17  PMID:28671149
Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major cause of concern because of its increasing prevalence rate and related microvascular as well as macrovascular complications, including kidney disease. Microalbuminuria has been accepted as the earliest marker for diabetic nephropathy; however, a large proportion of renal impairment occurs in nonalbuminuric state. We planned to investigate the serum and urinary levels of the tubular damage markers (neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin [NGAL] and cystatin C [Cys C]) in patients of type 2 diabetes to detect early kidney injury. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional hospital-based study included 180 patients with type 2 DM according to the American Diabetes Association criteria. Serum NGAL (S.NGAL) and urine NGAL (U.NGAL) and Cys C were measured in all study participants and investigated for correlation with microalbuminuria. Results: Our results showed that U.NGAL and S.NGAL levels were significantly high in patients with microalbuminuria as compared to normoalbuminuric controls. Serum Cys C was also higher in microalbuminuric patients than who had normoalbuminuria. A positive correlation of urinary albumin excretion with S.NGAL and U.NGAL was noted. U.NGAL also showed positive correlation with duration of diabetes, glycated hemoglobin, and dyslipidemia. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that the area under the curve for U.NGAL and S.NGAL were 1 and 0.8, respectively, which indicates that they are sensitive markers for early renal damage. Conclusion: Urinary biomarkers were significantly elevated in normoalbuminuric type 2 diabetic patients compared with nondiabetic controls and could be used as markers of nephropathy at a very early stage even before the development of microalbuminuria, the current gold standard for early diagnosis. Despite the promise of these new biomarkers, further large, multicenter prospective studies are still needed.
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Emerging trends of nosocomial pneumonia in intensive care unit of a tertiary care public teaching hospital in Western India p. 107
Rakesh Bhadade, Minal Harde, Rosemarie deSouza, Ashwini More, Ramesh Bharmal
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_7_17  PMID:28671150
Background: Nosocomial pneumonia poses great challenge to an intensivist. Detailed information about hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-acquired pneumonia (VAP) is crucial for prevention and optimal management, thus improving quality Intensive Care Unit (ICU) care. Hence, we aimed to study the current trend of nosocomial pneumonia in ICU. Materials and Methods: It was a prospective observational cohort study, conducted in the ICU of a tertiary care teaching public hospital over a period of 18 months. We studied clinical profile and outcome of 120 adult patients who developed VAP/HAP during the study period. We also analyzed the causative organisms, antibiotic sensitivity, and resistance pattern in these patients. Results: Out of 120 patients, 29 patients were HAP and 91 patients were VAP. Mortality was 60% (72), and development of VAP and requirement of mechanical ventilation showed significant association with mortality (P < 0.00001). Most common organism causing HAP was Staphylococcus aureus (43.4%) and VAP was Klebsiella pneumoniae (49%). Maximum antibiotic sensitivity was found to piperacillin + tazobactam (58.8%), followed by imipenem (49.5%) and meropenem (41.8%), whereas maximum antibiotic resistance was found to cefepime (95.1%), followed by ceftazidime and amoxicillin (91.2%). Conclusion: Nosocomial pneumonia showed high incidence (17.44%) and mortality (60%). Common organisms identified were S. aureus and K. pneumoniae. Resistance was high for commonly used antibiotics and high antibiotic sensitivity for piperacillin + tazobactam and carbapenem. Contexte: La pneumonie nosocomiale pose un grand défi à un intensiviste. Des informations détaillées sur la pneumonie acquise dans les hôpitaux (HAP) et la pneumonie acquise par le ventilateur (VAP) sont essentielles pour la prévention et la gestion optimale, améliorant ainsi les soins de soins intensifs de qualité (UTI). Par conséquent, nous avons cherché à étudier la tendance actuelle de la pneumonie nosocomiale en UTI. Matériaux et méthodes: il s'agissait d'une étude de cohorte observationnelle prospective menée dans l'UCI d'un hôpital public d'enseignement tertiaire sur une période de 18 mois. Nous avons étudié le profil clinique et le résultat de 120 patients adultes qui ont développé le VAP / HAP pendant la période d'étude. Nous avons également analysé les organismes responsables, la sensibilité aux antibiotiques et le modèle de résistance chez ces patients. Résultats: Sur 120 patients, 29 patients étaient HAP et 91 patients étaient VAP. La mortalité était de 60% (72), et le développement du VAP et l'exigence de ventilation mécanique ont montré une association significative avec la mortalité (P < 0,00001). L'organisme le plus fréquent causant HAP était Staphylococcus aureus (43,4%) et VAP était Klebsiella pneumoniae (49%). Une sensibilité antibiotique maximale a été observée chez la pipéracilline + tazobactam (58,8%), suivie de l'imipénème (49,5%) et du méropénem (41,8%), alors que la résistance antibiotique maximale a été observée à cefépime (95,1%), suivie de ceftazidime et de l'amoxicilline (91,2%) . Conclusion: la pneumonie nosocomiale a montré une incidence élevée (17,44%) et la mortalité (60%). Les organismes communs identifiés étaient S. aureus et K. pneumoniae. La résistance était élevée pour les antibiotiques couramment utilisés et une forte sensibilité aux antibiotiques pour la pipéracilline + le tazobactam et le carbapénème.
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A profile of adverse effects of antihypertensive medicines in a tertiary care clinic in Nigeria p. 114
Abimbola O Olowofela, Ambrose O Isah
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_6_17  PMID:28671151
Background: There has been a dearth of comprehensive data on the profile of adverse reactions to antihypertensive medicines in the Nigerian setting despite increased use. Objective: This study was aimed to characterize the adverse reactions experienced in the homogenously black African population. Methods: The study was carried out at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria, in consenting eligible hypertensive patients ≥18 years. Adverse reactions were sought using patient's self-report and a medicine-induced symptom checklist. Results: A total of 514 patients (340 females) aged 22–97 years were studied. Thirteen percent, 27.6%, 26.7%, 22.0%, and 10.7% were on 1, 2, 3, 4, and ≥5 medicines, respectively, for control of their blood pressure with the frequency of adverse effects increasing proportionately up to four medicines. Adverse reactions to antihypertensive medicines were reported by a total of 93 (18.1%) patients. Diuretics – 27.9%, calcium channel blockers (CCBs) – 26.8%, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) – 26.8% accounted for most of the adverse reactions seen, notably frequent micturition and headaches (CCB); excessive micturition and dizziness (diuretics); dry irritating cough (ACEI). Notable complaints for all patients using the checklist were increased frequency of micturition, reduction in libido, and headaches. The reactions resulted in the discontinuation and substitution of therapy in 49.5% of the patients. Conclusions: The characterization of these reactions in Nigerians requires further studies as frequent micturition reported is still a neglected complaint in antihypertensive therapy.
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Effect of analgesia on the changes in respiratory parameters in blunt chest injury with multiple rib fractures p. 120
Eyo Effiong Ekpe, Catherine Eyo
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_73_16  PMID:28671152
Background: Blunt chest injury with multiple rib fractures can result in such complications as pneumonia, atelectasis, bronchiectasis, empyema thoracis, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and prolonged Intensive Care Unit and hospital stay, with its concomitant mortality. These may be prevented or reduced by good analgesic therapy which is the subject of this study. Methods: This was a prospective study of effects of analgesia on changes in pulmonary functions of patients with traumatic multiple rib fractures resulting from blunt chest injury. Results: There were 64 adult patients who were studied with multiple rib fractures caused by blunt chest trauma. Of these patients, 54 (84.4%) were male and 10 (15.6%) were female. Motorcycle (popularly known as “okada”) and tricycle (popularly known as keke napep) accidents significantly accounted for the majority of the multiple rib fractures, that is, in 50 (78.1%) of the patients. Before analgesic administration, no patient had a normal respiratory rate, but at 1 h following the administration of analgesic, 21 (32.8%) of patients recorded normal respiratory rates and there was a significant reduction in the number (10.9% vs. 39.1%) of patients with respiratory rates >30 breaths/min. Before commencement of analgesic, no patient recorded up to 99% of oxygen saturation (SpO2) as measured by pulse oximeter, while 43.8% recorded SpO2of 96%. This improved after 1 h of administration of analgesics to SpO2of 100% in 18.8% of patients and 99% in 31.3% of patients and none recording SpO2of < 97% (P = 0.006). Before analgesia, no patient was able to achieve peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) value >100% of predicted while only 9 (14.1%) patients were able to achieve a PEFR value in the range of 91%–100% of predicted value. One hour after analgesia, a total of 6 (9.4%) patients were able to achieve PEFR values >100% predicted, while 35 (54.7%) patients achieved PEFR values in the range of 91%–100% predicted. Conclusion: Adequate analgesia is capable of reversing the negative effects of chest pain of traumatic multiple rib fractures on pulmonary function parameters through improvement in respiratory mechanics.
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Evaluation of locked plate in the osteosynthesis of fractures in osteoporotic bones p. 127
Muhammad Oboirien, Stephen Patrick Agbo, Lukman Olalekan Ajiboye
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_3_17  PMID:28671153
Background: The use of conventional dynamic compression plates (DCPs) in osteoporotic bones is associated with higher chances of implant failure. The advent and use of locking combi-plates have ensured a stable construct during osteosynthesis of fractures in osteoporotic bones. Objectives: The study aims to assess the outcome of use of locking combi-plates in the management of fractures in osteoporotic bones in our environment. Materials and Methods: Cases of patients with nonunion and localized osteoporosis from January 2014 to December 2014 that were managed with locked combi-plates were reviewed. Outcome was assessed by time to healing, stability of implant construct after 6 and 12 months. Results: There were 10 patients with mean age of 47.4 ± 12.63 years. There were 9 males and 1 female, and road traffic crashes were the mechanism of injury in 90% (n = 9) and gunshot injuries in 10% (n = 1). Atrophic nonunion was the most common indication for osteosynthesis with 80%, followed by fibrous nonunion with 10.0%. The humerus was the most common long bone involved with 50%. Locked broad DCP was used in 62.5%, and the duration between initial injury and surgery was 6 and 48 months, with an average of 17.5 months. The outcome was such that 90% healed after 12 months on follow-up while one case had the implant backing out and delay union at 6 months. Conclusion: The use of locked plate in the management of nonunion in the presence of osteoporosis ensures stable fixation construct and healing. Contexte: L'utilisation de plaques de compression dynamiques conventionnelles dans les os ostéoporotiques est associée à des chances plus élevées de défaillance de l'implant. L'avènement et l'utilisation de combi-plaques de verrouillage ont assuré une construction stable lors de l'ostéosyntheis de fractures dans les os ostéoporotiques. Objectifs: L'étude vise à évaluer le résultat de l'utilisation de combi-plaques de verrouillage dans la gestion des fractures dans les os ostéoporotiques dans notre environnement. Méthodologie: Les cas de patients atteints d'ostéoporose non syndiquée et localisée de janvier 2014 à décembre 2014 qui ont été gérés avec des combi-plaques verrouillées ont été examinés. Le résultat a été évalué par le temps de guérison, la stabilité de la construction d'implant après 6 et 12 mois. Résultats: il y avait 10 patients avec un âge moyen de 47,4 12,63. Il y avait 9 hommes et 1 accident de la route et de la route était le mécanisme de la blessure dans 90% (n = 9) et les blessures par balle dans 10% (n = 1). La non-union atrophique était l'indication la plus courante pour l'ostéosynthèse avec 80%, suivie d'une non-union fibreuse avec 10,0%. L'humérus était l'os le plus fréquent impliqué avec 50%. La plaque de compression dynamique bloquée (DCP) a été utilisée à 62,5% et la durée entre la blessure initiale et la chirurgie était de 6 et 48 mois avec une moyenne de 17,5 mois. Le résultat était tel que 90% ont été guéris après 12 mois de suivi, tandis que 1 cas avait l'implantation de l'implant et retardé l'union à 6 mois. Conclusion: L'utilisation de la plaque verrouillée dans la gestion de la non-union en présence d'ostéoporose assure une construction stable de fixation et une guérison.
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Cross-sectional, observational study of anterior segment parameters using anterior segment optical coherence tomography in North Indian Population p. 131
Latika Khatri Dalal, Renu Dhasmana, Amit Maitreya
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_40_16  PMID:28671154
Purpose: To study the anterior segment (AS) parameters using AS optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) in the North Indian population. Methods: A hospital-based, observational, cross-sectional study was conducted over a period of 1 year. It included 251 normal individuals aged 20–70 years. Participants underwent imaging with AS-OCT.Ocular parameters included anterior chamber angle (ACA), iris cross-sectional area (ICSA), iris thickness (IT), and iris curvature (IC). The parameters were measured nasally and temporally for both sexes and different age groups. Results: The mean age of participants was 48.3 ± 13.9 years and 50.6% were men. The ACA decreased with age whereas ICSA, IT, and IC increased with age. The ACA (P = 0.0001nasally and temporally), ICSA (P = 0.011 nasally, P = 0.027 temporally), IT750 (P = 0.001 nasally, P = 0.011 temporally), IT1500 (P = 0.002 nasally, P = 0.002 temporally), and IC (P = 0.059 nasally, P = 0.128 temporally) underwent statistically significant changes with increasing age. No significant difference was seen in parameters of different sex. Conclusion: In this subset of the Indian population, the change in the AC parameters with age influences the AC dimensions predisposing the eye to glaucomatous conditions. These data are applicable clinically for the assessment and surgical management of patients requiring AS surgery. Objectif: Étudier les paramètres du segment antérieur (AS) en utilisant la tomodensitométrie optique AS (AS-OCT) dans la population du nord de l'Inde. Méthodes: Une étude axée sur l'hôpital, observationnelle et transversale a été menée sur une période de 1 an. Il comprenait 251 individus normaux âgés de 20 à 70 ans. Les participants ont subi une imagerie avec AS-OCT. Les paramètres oculaires comprenaient l'angle de la chambre antérieure (ACA), la surface transversale de l'iris (ICSA), l'épaisseur de l'iris (IT) et la courbure de l'iris (IC). Les paramètres ont été mesurés par voie nasale et temporelle pour les deux sexes et différents groupes d'âge. Résultats: l'âge moyen des participants était de 48,3 ± 13,9 ans et 50,6% des hommes. L'ACA a diminué avec l'âge alors que ICSA, IT et IC ont augmenté avec l'âge. L'ACA (P = 0,0001 par voie nasale et temporelle), ICSA (P = 0,011 nasale, P = 0,027 temporellement), IT750 (P = 0,001 par voie nasale, P = 0,011 temporellement), IT1500 (P = 0,002 par voie nasale, P = 0,002 temporellement) Et IC (P = 0,059 nasal, P = 0,128 temporellement) ont subi des changements statistiquement significatifs avec l'âge. Aucune différence significative n'a été observée dans les paramètres du sexe différent. Conclusion: Dans ce sous-ensemble de la population indienne, la variation des paramètres CA avec l'âge influence les dimensions AC prédisposant l'oeil aux conditions glaucomateuses. Ces données sont applicables cliniquement pour l'évaluation et la gestion chirurgicale des patients nécessitant une chirurgie AS.
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Low back pain in pregnant women attending antenatal clinic: The Aminu Kano teaching hospital experience p. 136
Mustapha Ibrahim Usman, Muhammad Kabir Abubakar, Shamsuddeen Muhammad, Ayyuba Rabiu, Ibrahim Garba
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_214_16  PMID:28671155
Background: The profound physiologic effects of pregnancy affect the musculoskeletal system. Pregnant women are at increased risks of low back/pelvic girdle pains. Objective: To determine the incidence of low back/pelvic girdle pains among pregnant women. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted from May 1 to June 30, 2016, among consenting pregnant women at Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital. Ethical approval was obtained from the Hospital Ethics Committee. Information was obtained in a questionnaire on consecutive pregnant women. Data obtained were analyzed using SPSS version 18 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois, USA, 2012). Fisher's exact test was used for categorical data, and P ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 309 pregnant women were recruited from May 1 to June 30, 2016. The mean age ± standard deviation was 28.4 ± 5.86 years. The incidence of low back pains (LBPs) and pelvic girdle pains among the pregnant women was 106 (34.3%) and 178 (57.6%), respectively. The pain was severe among 26 (9.2%) pregnant women, which warranted analgesic usage. Pain radiation was reported in >50% of cases. There was an incidental finding of urinary incontinence in 36 (12.6%) cases. Low back/pelvic girdle pain was not associated with body mass index (BMI) (P = 0.390). Conclusion: The incidence of LBPs and pelvic girdle pains was high and found to be 34.3% and 57.6%, respectively. Analgesics were used especially among those with severe pains. There was an incidental finding of urinary incontinence among pregnant women with complaints of low back/pelvic girdle pains. There was no statistically significant association between LBPs and maternal BMI.
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Overview of extremity musculoskeletal neoplasms at the Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital Zaria, Nigeria p. 141
Maitama Mohammed Inuwa, Lawal Yau Zakariyau, Dahiru I Ismail, Ejagwulu S Friday, Aniko A Ibrahim, Abdulmalik A Mohammed
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_5_17  PMID:28671156
Background: The burden of managing patients with musculoskeletal neoplasms in the West African sub-region is quite significant. This is largely due to late presentation, delay in making diagnosis, and failure of obtaining consent to certain surgical procedures. Improvements in diagnosis and treatment over the years have however increased life and limb survival for many patients. This study was aimed at evaluating the clinicopathologic pattern of neoplasm as it affects the upper and lower limbs with a view to determining the most common types, the most involved sites of the body and the age at presentation of these tumors. Materials and Methods: A total of 65 patients with histologically confirmed neoplasm of the upper and lower limbs arising from bone, cartilage, skeletal muscle, synovium, and tendon sheath were retrospectively selected 7 years from January 2008 to 2015. Results: Forty-one (63.1%) patients were males, whereas 24 (36.9%) were females. Age range is between 5 and 75 years, average of 30.8 years. Lower limb involvement was recorded in 40 (61.5%) patients, with remaining 25 (38.5%) patients in upper limbs. 28 (43.1%) patients had benign lesion, whereas 37 (56.9%) were malignant. Giant cell tumor (GCT) was the most frequent benign tumor (50%) while osteogenic sarcomas top the list on the malignant variety (32.4%). The most commonly affected bones were tibia, carpal-metacarpal, and femur in that order. Conclusion: In our center, GCT and osteogenic sarcoma are the most frequently encountered benign and malignant musculoskeletal extremity neoplasms, respectively, with the tibial bone being most commonly affected.
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CASE REPORT Top

Primary hyperparathyroidism in pregnancy p. 145
Meryem Rchachi, Hanan El Ouahabi, Saïd Boujraf, Farida Ajdi
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_61_16  PMID:28671157
Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHT) is a frequent and asymptomatic pathology in 80% of patients, and a parathyroidal adenoma is found in the most case. However, rare cases might occur during pregnancy; and the literature reported up to 200 cases. We report three cases of PHT that occurred during the second and last third trimesters of pregnancy stage in patients aged 26, 42 and 32-year-old. Despite diagnosis limitations, since scintigraphy is prohibited in pregnancy, the patients were managed conservatively with good prognosis for both mothers and babies. L'hyperparathyroïdie primaire (HTP) est une maladie fréquente et asymptomatique chez 80% des patients. Un adénome parathyroïdien est retrouvé chez une grande majorité des cas. Cependant, l'apparition au cours de la grossesse est particulièrement rare et la littérature ne rapporte que 200 cas. Nous en rapportons 3 cas d'hyperparathyroïdie âgés de 26, 42 et 32 ans, survenue au cours du deuxième et troisième trimestre de la grossesse. Malgré les limites diagnostiques dues à l'interdiction de la scintigraphie au cours de la grossesse, la gestion avait été faite de façon très conservative de sorte à avoir le meilleur pronostic pour les patientes leurs fétus.
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LETTER TO EDITOR Top

Atherogenic index of plasma for the assessment of cardiovascular risk factors p. 148
Beuy Joob, Viroj Wiwanitkit
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_332_16  PMID:28671158
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