Annals of African Medicine
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Coverpage
October-December 2019
Volume 18 | Issue 4
Page Nos. 185-214

Online since Thursday, December 5, 2019

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Gross motor developmental delay in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children under 2 years of age p. 185
Patience Ngozi Obiagwu
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_7_19  
Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has significant effects on child development. We report the outcome of gross motor developmental assessment in HIV-infected children <2 years compared with that of uninfected children. Materials and Methods: Every child <2 years of age presenting for the first time to the pediatric outpatient department of the hospital over 3 months was studied. Each child had a physical examination with gross motor milestone assessment, as well as initial double rapid HIV antibody tests with confirmatory tests for those with positive or discordant results. Children with evidence of motor delay were booked for reassessment after 1 month. The milestone performance criteria of the Multicenter Growth Reference Study of the World Health Organization were used as a standard. Results: One hundred and eight children were studied. Male-to-female ratio was 1:1. Fourteen children (13.0%) were HIV infected. Nine children (8.3%) had delayed development of gross motor milestones, of which five were HIV infected and four were uninfected (P = 0.001). Each motor milestone was attained at a significantly later mean age by the HIV-infected children when compared to the uninfected. Evidence of delay in gross motor milestones was apparent by the first 6 months of life. Conclusions: A tendency to poorer motor development is apparent in young children infected by HIV and can manifest as early as the first 6 months of life. Routine HIV screening as well as early developmental assessment of all children should be encouraged.
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Prevalence and pattern of chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorders among hemodialysis patients in kano, northwest nigeria p. 191
Alhaji Abdu, Aliyu Abdu, Fatiu A Arogundade
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_18_19  
Introduction: Mineral and bone disorders (MBD) are among the important complications of chronic kidney disease (CKD) including end-stage renal disease. In addition to the higher rate of all-cause and cardiovascular-related mortality, MBD is also a cause of significant morbidity in CKD patients. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of all consenting patients on hemodialysis at Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, between December 2011 and June 2012. With the aid of an interviewer-administered questionnaire, the demographic profile and clinical features of the patients were obtained. After a general physical examination, blood sample was taken for the determination of calcium, phosphate, intact parathyroid hormone, 25 hydroxy (25[OH]) Vitamin D3, packed cell volume, serum creatinine, and potassium. Results: Forty-eight patients on maintenance hemodialysis were recruited for the study, 39 (81.3%) were male and 9 (18.8%) were female. The age range was 40–59 years, with a mean of 45.96 ± 13.7 years. Chronic glomerulonephritis was the predominant cause of CKD (25%). Hyperphosphatemia was noted in 19 (39.5%) of the patients, whereas 22 (46%) had hypocalcemia. In 26 (54.1%) of the patients, the calcium-phosphate product was >4.55 mmol2/L2. We found that 58% of the patients had CKD-MBD, of which 15 (31%) had secondary hyperparathyroidism, whereas 13 (27%) had features suggestive of adynamic bone disease. None of the patient had normal serum 25(OH) Vitamin D3(mean: 43.79 ± 21 ng/ml). Conclusion: CKD-MBD is common among patients on hemodialysis in our center. Screening for CKD-MBD and appropriate use of phosphate binder and Vitamin D when indicated are highly recommended.
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Pattern of limb amputations in Liberia p. 196
Joseph K Weyhee, Mohammed Kabir Abubakar, Ernest Muvunandinda, Patrick Okao, Atem D Geu
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_19_19  
Background: Amputation is one of the oldest known surgical procedures. It has been one of the modalities of applying judgment and treatment. Its method and indications has evolved over time. Modern amputation is regarded as a part of treatment rather than failure of treatment. Amputation is the removal of a limb or part of a limb through on or more bone. When through a joint is referred to as disarticulation. Data on the profile and pattern of amputation in Liberia will add to the body of knowledge. Aim and Objectives: Is to describe the pattern of limb of amputations in Liberia. Also to describe the anatomical variations of limb amputations in Liberia. Patients and Method: A retrospective study of all patients that underwent limb amputation surgeries in the John F Kennedy Memorial (JFK M), Hospital , Monrovia Liberia between January 2010 to December 2015. Results: 100 patients had limb amputations between 2010 and 2015. Males(73) to female(27) ratio were 2.4:1. The age range was 9 - 91 years. Mean age was 42.9 years. The indications for amputations were Trauma 24%, Diabetes 29%, Gangrene (6%), Chronic ulcer (25%), Tumour (5%). Below knee(47%), Above Knee(45%), Below elbow(2%), Above Elbow(2%), Knee Disarticulation(2%), and Big Toe Disarticulation(2%). Conclusion: The profile of Limb amputation in Liberia is not very different from what is obtaining in the region. However the limitations of histology and other investigative procedure have affected the accurate diagnosis of certain conditions like tumours.
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Early signs of microvascular complications in pediatric patients with short duration of type 1 diabetes mellitus seen in southeast Nigeria p. 200
Chinwe Flora Ogugua, Ugo Nnenna Chikani, Maryann Ugochi Ibekwe, Thomas Ngwieri, Holley Allen
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_5_19  
Background: Clinically evident microvascular complications are rarely seen among children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), although early signs develop during childhood and accelerate during puberty. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of early signs of microvascular complications in children and adolescents aged 9–19 years with a short duration of T1DM by screening for retinopathy and nephropathy. Methods: A cross-sectional study and participants were consecutively enrolled from the Endocrinology Clinic at Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki. Physical examination and mydriatic ophthalmoscopy were conducted. Three early morning spot urine specimens for albumin/creatinine ratio were estimated 3 months apart. Serum creatinine levels were estimated, and the glomerular filtration rate was calculated. Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was determined. Results: Twenty-four individuals participated, 15 (62.5%) were male and the mean age at diagnosis was 12.4 ± 2.3 years. The mean duration of diabetes was 23.8 ± 20.6 months. The mean HbA1c was 11.4%. Retinopathy was seen in 16.7%, whereas 33.3% had microalbuminuria. Blood pressure range was within the 50th–90th percentile for all the participants. Conclusion: The study outcome demonstrated a high prevalence of early signs of microvascular complications such as retinopathy and nephropathy among youths with short duration of T1DM. Poor glycemic control, if not halted, is associated with early signs of microvascular complications which may become clinically evident; contrary to the belief that they are rare in childhood.
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CASE REPORT Top

Development of crohn's disease following treatment for juvenile idiopathic arthritis in a nigerian child: Case report and review of literature p. 206
Oluwafunmilayo Funke Adeniyi, Uyi Ima-Edomwonyi, A Emuobor Odeghe, I Vincent Onyekwelu
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_16_19  
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and Crohn's disease (CD) are diseases that are rarely seen in the black African child. CD has been reported to occur following therapy with etanercept in JIA patients. We report the case of a Nigerian child with JIA who developed CD following treatment for JIA. A 9-year-old male with JIA was referred to the pediatric gastroenterology unit of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital on the account of chronic diarrhea with occasional passage of bloody stools. He had been on prednisolone and methotrexate which had controlled the joint flares. Colonoscopy revealed extensive colitis, ulcers, abscesses, and ileocecal disease. Histology confirmed the CD. In view of the unavailability of the recommended treatment, namely biologics in the country and financial constraints; steroids; and sulfasalazine were added to his treatment regimen, and subsequently, he has made significant clinical improvement.
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LETTERS TO EDITOR Top

Ovarian fibroma with torsion in a young female p. 210
Sonal Saran, Abhay Pratap Singh, Tanvi Khanna
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_2_19  
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Maxillary mucormycosis causing oroantral fistula in a young female p. 211
Sonal Saran, Yash Sharma, Tanvi Khanna, Abhay Pratap Singh
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_1_19  
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ERRATUM Top

Erratum: serum levels of single-carbon metabolism vitamins and homocysteine in head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma: Preliminary report p. 214

DOI:10.4103/1596-3519.272405  
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