|Year : 2014 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 71-75
A retrospective analysis of acute organophosphorus poisoning cases admitted to the tertiary care teaching hospital in South India
M Rajesh Kumar1, GP Vignan Kumar2, P Ramesh Babu1, S Satish Kumar3, BV Subrahmanyam4, M Veeraprasad5, P Rammohan6, M Srinivas3, Amit Agrawal7
1 Department of Medicine, Narayana Medical College Hospital, Chinthareddypalem, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh, India
2 Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Narayana Medical College Hospital, Chinthareddypalem, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh, India
3 Department of Emergency Medicine, Narayana Medical College Hospital, Chinthareddypalem, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh, India
4 Department of Forensic Medicine, Narayana Medical College Hospital, Chinthareddypalem, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh, India
5 Department of Hospital Administration, Narayana Medical College Hospital, Chinthareddypalem, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh, India
6 Department of Pharmacology, Narayana Medical College Hospital, Chinthareddypalem, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh, India
7 Department of Neurosurgery, Narayana Medical College Hospital, Chinthareddypalem, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh, India
|Date of Web Publication||2-Apr-2014|
M Rajesh Kumar
Department of Medicine, Narayana Medical College Hospital, Chinthareddypalem, Nellore - 524 003, Andhra Pradesh
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
| Abstract|| |
Objectives: We have herein reported our experience with the pattern of presentation of cases of acute organophosphorus (OP) poisoning cases in a tertiary care hospital.
Materials and Methods: This retrospective study evaluated the hospital records of patients with acute OP poisoning. In a pre-structured proforma, data regarding age, sex, time elapsed after intake, circumstances of poisoning, duration of hospitalization, severity, complications, and outcome of the patients were recorded. The data were presented as mean ± standard deviation, entered in the open office datasheet, and analyzed with PSPP software.
Results: A total 101 patients were included in the study. Young adult males were more commonly involved than females (M:F 2.5:1). The mean age of the patients was 28 years (range 2-72 years, SD ± 14.3 years). Mean time to receive treatment was 5.2 ± 7.4 (range 1-48 h). About 45.5% patients received first aid before coming to the hospital. The reason was suicide in 88.1% cases and accident in 12 (11.9%, all children). Seventy-nine patients received pralidoxime (PAM) and the mean duration was 1.7 ± 1.1 (range 1-4 days). Atropine was given in all patients. Mean duration was 5.1 ± 3.1 (range 1–19 days). Mean hospital stay was 7.5 ± 4.7 days (range 1–26 days). Mortality was 9.9% in the present series.
Conclusion: Although the present study contribute substantial information regarding the epidemiology and outcome of acute OP poisoning in a tertiary care teaching hospital at a district level, its relatively small sample size and the retrospective record-based nature are the major limitations of the present study. There is a further need for prospective studies to understand the underlying socio-economic factors responsible for acute OP poisoning in our population, and, accordingly, address the problems to reduce the incidence of acute OP poisoning cases.
| Abstract in Spanish|| |
Objectifs: Nous avoir ci-après rapported notre expérience avec le modèle de présentation des cas de courte durée organophosphorus ( OP) empoisonnement cas dans un hôpital de soins tertiaires.
Matériel et méthodes: Cette étude rétrospective a évalué les dossiers de l'hôpital de patients avec aiguë OP empoisonnement. Dans un formulaire de type pré-structurée, de données concernant l'âge, le sexe, temps écoulé après l'apport, les circonstances d'intoxication, durée d'hospitalisation, de gravité, de complications, et le résultat des patients ont été enregistrés. Le données ont été présentées sous forme de moyenne ± écart-type, est entré dans la feuille de données de bureau ouvert, et analysées avec le logiciel PSPP.
Résultats: A total 101 patients ont été inclus dans l'étude. Jeunes hommes adultes ont été plus fréquemment en cause que les femelles (M:F 2.5: 1). L'âge moyen des patients a été de 28 ans (plage 2de72 ans, SD - ± ans 14,3). Temps moyen pour recevoir traitement a été de 5,2 ± 7,4 (plage 1-48 h). Environ 45,5% patients ont reçu des premiers soins avant de venir à l'hôpital. La raison était le suicide de 88.1% cas et accident en 12 (11,9%, tous les enfants). Soixante-dix-neuf patients ont reçu pralidoxime (PAM) et la durée moyenne a été de 1,7 ± 1.1 (plage 1-4 jours). L'atropine a été donné à tous les patients. Moyenne durée était 5.1 ± 3.1 (plage 1-19 jours). Moyen séjour hospitalier était 7,5 ± 4,7 jours (plage 1-26 jours). La mortalité a été de 9,9% dans la série.
Conclusion: Bien que la présente étude apportent des renseignements importants concernant l'épidémiologie et le résultat de l'aigu OP empoisonnement dans un hôpital d'enseignement de soins tertiaires à un niveau de district, son relativement petite taille de l'échantillon et la nature rétrospective de basé sur des enregistrements sont les principales limites de la présente étude. Il n'y a une nécessité d'études prospectives à comprendre les facteurs socio-économiques sous-jacentes responsables de l'intoxication aiguë d'OP dans notre population et, en conséquence, de régler les problèmes à réduire l'incidence des OP aigu empoisonnement cas.
Mots-clés: Aiguë organophosphate empoisonnement, intoxication par le patron, résultat, hôpital de soins tertiaires
Keywords: Acute poisoning, organophosphate poisoning pattern, outcome, tertiary care hospital
|How to cite this article:|
Kumar M R, Vignan Kumar G P, Babu P R, Kumar S S, Subrahmanyam B V, Veeraprasad M, Rammohan P, Srinivas M, Agrawal A. A retrospective analysis of acute organophosphorus poisoning cases admitted to the tertiary care teaching hospital in South India. Ann Afr Med 2014;13:71-5
|How to cite this URL:|
Kumar M R, Vignan Kumar G P, Babu P R, Kumar S S, Subrahmanyam B V, Veeraprasad M, Rammohan P, Srinivas M, Agrawal A. A retrospective analysis of acute organophosphorus poisoning cases admitted to the tertiary care teaching hospital in South India. Ann Afr Med [serial online] 2014 [cited 2018 Jan 19];13:71-5. Available from: http://www.annalsafrmed.org/text.asp?2014/13/2/71/129876
| Introduction|| |
Organophosphorous (OP) compounds (the anticholinesterases) are used as insecticides, pesticides, herbicides, and chemical warfare agents. ,,, OP compound's easy availability is responsible for increasing incidences of pesticide poisoning and it being a major cause of morbidity/mortality that poses public health problem in developing countries, including India. ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, World Health Organization (WHO) and several other studies have estimated that OP pesticides were responsible for majority of self-attempted deaths in the developing world. ,,,,,,,, In this study, we have reported our experience with the pattern of presentation of cases of acute OP poisoning cases in a tertiary care hospital.
| Materials and Methods|| |
This retrospective study was conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Andhra Pradesh, India. Hospital records of patients with acute OP poisoning from the year 2008 to 2012 were reviewed. In a pre-structured proforma, data regarding age, sex, time elapsed after intake, circumstances of poisoning, duration of hospitalization, severity, complications, and outcome of the patients were recorded along with the details of general physical examination, systemic examination, laboratory investigations, and management offered. Mild intoxications were defined by symptoms of miosis, rhinorrhea, lacrimation, and mild abdominal pain without difficulties in respiration and without disturbances of consciousness. Moderate cases were defined as having aggravation of the latter symptoms with additional complaints of the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems. Severe cases were defined as having, in addition to the previous symptoms, loss of consciousness, convulsions, or respiratory depression. Ethical clearance was obtained from the ethical review committee, Narayana Medical College and Hospital. Patients included in the study followed a standard treatment guideline of organophosphate poisoning in our hospital. All the patients were given gastric lavage and their skin was thoroughly cleansed with water at the time of admission. Activated charcoal was administered in a selected group of patients. Atropine and pralidoxime (PAM) were administered in accordance with the protocol of the hospital. Injection PAM was given patients at a dose of 1–2 g intravenous (IV) bolus, followed by 500 mg/h (IV) for 3 days. Injection atropine 1–2 mg IV stat. was administered, followed by 5–10 mg/h according to the clinical condition. All the patients were closely monitored with ECG, SpO 2 . ABG (define), and chest X-ray as per the requirement. Patients were ventilated when there was an evidence of respiratory failure. Injection glycopyrrolate was given to patients who had excessive bronchial secretions. Weaning from mechanical ventilation was as per the standard protocol. Data were presented as mean ± standard deviation, entered in the open office datasheet, and analyzed with PSPP software. To analyze the variables multivariate linear regression and multivariate logistic regression analysis (as appropriate) were used. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
| Results|| |
A total of 101 patients were included in this study. Young adult males were more commonly involved than females (M:F of 2.5:1) [Figure 1]. The mean age was 28.0 years (range 2-72 years, SD ± 14.4 years). Mean time to receive treatment was 5.2 ± 7.4 (range 1-48 h). By occupation, non-farmers were 56.4% and farmers were 43.6%. About 45.5% patients received first aid before coming to the hospital, while 54.5% did not receive the same. The reason to consume OPC was suicide in 88.1% cases and accident in 12 (11.9%, all children). About 42.6% patients were conscious at the time of presentation, 39.6% were drowsy, and 17.8% patients were unconscious at the time of presentation. In most of the patients, the temperature was normal (98%), only 2 patients had mild fever. About 47.5% patients had normally reactive pupils at the time of presentation, 44.6% patients had pinpoint pupils at the time of presentation, and 7.9% patients had dilated and non-reacting pupils. Nine patients had a history of convulsions. 13.9% had features of aspiration at the time of presentation, 55.4% had tachycardia at the time of presentation (pulse rate >100). Seventy-nine patients received PAM and the mean duration was 1.72 ± 1.08 (range 1-4 days). Atropine was given in all cases. Mean duration was 5.14 ± 3.12 (range 1–19 days). Also, 34.7% patients required mechanical ventilation; dialysis was needed in 2 patients with increase in serum creatinine. Mean hospital stay was 7.53 ± 4.68 days (range 1–26 days) and mortality was in 9.9% in the present series.
| Discussion|| |
In this study, as in most other studies, male dominated females (M:F ratio range 0.1-6.1), ,,,, and young adults (2 nd to 4 th decade) were victims of OP self-poisoning. ,,,,, In contrast, in accordance with the literature, accidental poisoning was more common in children.  Acute pesticides exposure can be accident or suicide, occupational, bystander exposure, or exposure because of consumption of food items containing pesticide residues. , The commonest incidence of OP poisoning was suicidal attempt, ,,,,,,,,, as in this study. Accidental exposure is more common in children and female homemakers. ,,,, Although we did not study these differences in details, it has been proposed that high proportion of poisoning among males might be due to change in the lifestyle and cultural patterns,  reactive depression, and high degree of stress in academic, financial, and social sectors. ,, Careful resuscitation with appropriate use of antidotes, followed by good supportive care and observation is helpful in achieving good outcome.  In the present series, most of the patients could receive first aid within hours of poisoning as timely transport and intervention of all critically poisoning cases were recognized to prevent the high mortality.  In accordance with the previous findings, there was no significant difference in the mortality of the patients who received first aid and those who did not.  Treatment of all patients was based on the well-established principles and included decontamination and gastric lavage, antidotal therapy with atropine and oximes, and supportive therapy with benzodia-zepines and mechanical ventilation. ,,,,
Duration of the hospital stay varied according to the severity of clinical condition and could range from 1 day (mild cases) to 14 days (severe cases),  it may be longer in patients who need prolonged duration of mechanical ventilation. ,, In comparison to the western literature, , OP poisoning has high mortality in resource poor settings and the causes of this high mortality are multifactorial and include the high toxicity of locally available poisons, difficulties in transporting patients, the paucity of health care, and the lack of facilities and antidotes. ,,, The mortality in the present series was comparable to that in the literature where it has been reported to be 10–20%. ,, The explanation for this high mortality include intentional poisoning , and availability of highly toxic OP pesticides (WHO Class I toxicity). , In developing countries, with the widespread use of OP pesticides by farmers, it will be very difficult to reduce mortality by primary prevention.  Clinical OP poisoning recognition is very important, as pesticide poisoning is associated with a high fatality rate.  The possible steps to reduce the incidence of OP poisoning-related mortality include immediate shifting of the victim to a well-equipped and well-staffed hospital, careful resuscitation improvement in medical management, and provision of antidotes, intensive care beds, awareness, and education. ,,
| Conclusion|| |
OP poisoning is a medical emergency that needs rapid diagnosis and treatment. Early recognition, careful monitoring, and appropriate management will decrease the complication and the mortality rate. Although the present study contribute substantial information regarding the epidemiology and outcome of acute OP poisoning in a tertiary care teaching hospital at a district level, relatively small sample size and the retrospective record-based nature are the major limitations of the present study. There is a further need for prospective studies to understand underlying socio-economic factors responsible for OPC poisoning in our population and, accordingly, address the problems to reduce the incidence of OPC poisoning cases.
| References|| |
|1.||Bowls BJ, Freeman JM Jr, Luna JA, Meggs WJ. Oral treatment of organophosphate poisoning in mice. Acad Emerg Med 2003;10:286-8. |
|2.||Malik GM, Mubarik M, Romshoo GJ. Organophosphorus poisoning in the Kashmir Valley, 1994 to 1997. N Engl J Med 1998;338:1078. |
|3.||Sungur M, Guven M. Intensive care management of organophosphate insecticide poisoning. Crit Care 2001;5:211-5. |
|4.||Senanayake N, Karalliedde L. Acute poisoning in Sri Lanka: An overview. Ceylon Med J 1986;31:61-71. |
|5.||Eddleston M, Phillips MR. Self poisoning with pesticides. BMJ 2004;328:42-4. |
|6.||Jeyaratnam J. Acute pesticide poisoning: A major global health problem. World Health Stat Q 1990;43:139-44. |
|7.||Van der Hoek W, Konradsen F, Athukorala K, Wanigadewa T. Pesticide poisoning: A major health problem in Sri Lanka. Soc Sci Med 1998;46:495-504. |
|8.||Singh S, Wig N, Chaudhary D, Sood N, Sharma B. Changing pattern of acute poisoning in adults: Experience of a large North-West Indian Hospital 1970-1989. J Assoc Physicians India 1997;45:194-7. |
|9.||Lall SB, Peshin SS, Seth SD. Acute poisoning: A ten years retrospective hospital based study. Ann Natl Acad Med Sci 1994;30:35-44. |
|10.||Singh S, Sharma N. Neurological syndromes following organophosphate poisoning. Neurol India 2000;48:308-13. |
|11.||Leibson T, Lifshitz M. Organophosphate and carbamate poisoning: Review of the current literature and summary of clinical and laboratory experience in southern Israel. Isr Med Assoc J 2008;10:767-70. |
|12.||Eddleston M, Dawson A, Karalliedde L, Dissanayake W, Hittarage A, Azher S, et al. Early management after self-poisoning with an organophosphorus or carbamate pesticide - A treatment protocol for junior doctors. Crit Care 2004;8:391-7. |
|13.||Eddleston M. Patterns and problems of deliberate self-poisoning in the developing world. QJM 2000;93:715-31. |
|14.||Buckley NA, Karalliedde L, Dawson A, Senanayake N, Eddleston M. Where is the evidence for treatments used in pesticide poisoning? Is clinical toxicology fiddling while the developing world burns? J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 2004;42:113-6. |
|15.||Shaikh JM, Siddiqui FG, Soomro AG. Management of acute organophosphorus insecticide poisoning: An experience at a university hospital. JLUMHS 2008:97-101. |
|16.||World Health Organisation. Public health impact of pesticides used in agriculture. Ginebra: World Health Organisation, 1990. |
|17.||Ramesha KN, Rao KB, Kumar GS. Pattern and outcome of acute poisoning cases in a tertiary care hospital in Karnataka, India. Indian J Crit Care Med 2009;13:152-5. |
|18.||Unnikrishnan B, Singh B, Rajeev A. Trends of acute poisoning in south Karnataka. Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ) 2005;3:149-54. |
|19.||Thomas M, Anandan S, Kuruvilla PJ, Singh PR, David S. Profile of hospital admissions following acute poisoning--experiences from a major teaching hospital in south India. Adverse Drug React Toxicol Rev 2000;19:313-7. |
|20.||Das RK. Epidemiology of insecticide poisoining at AIIMS emergency services and role of its detection by gas liquid chromatography in diagnosis. Medico Update 2007;7:49-60. |
|21.||O′Malley M. Clinical evaluation of pesticide exposure and poisonings. Lancet 1997;349:1161-6. |
|22.||Eddleston M, Eyer P, Worek F, Mohamed F, Senarathna L, von Meyer L, et al. Differences between organophosphorus insecticides in human self-poisoning: A prospective cohort study. Lancet 2005;366:1452-9. |
|23.||Eddleston M, Gunnell D, Karunaratne A, de Silva D, Sheriff MH, Buckley NA. Epidemiology of intentional self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka. Br J Psychiatry 2005;187:583-4. |
|24.||Karalliedde L, Senanayake N. Acute organophosphorus insecticide poisoning in Sri Lanka. Forensic Sci Int 1988;36:97-100. |
|25.||Delilkan AE, Namazie M, Ong G. Organophosphate poisoning: A Malaysian intensive care experience of one hundred cases. Med J Malaysia 1984;39:229-33. |
|26.||Weissmann-Brenner A, Friedman LM, David A, Vidan A, Hourvitz A. Organophosphate poisoning: A multihospital survey. Isr Med Assoc J 2002;4:573-6. |
|27.||Tagwireyi D, Ball DE, Nhachi CF. Poisoning in Zimbabwe: A survey of eight major referral hospitals. J Appl Toxicol 2002;22:99-105. |
|28.||Singh DP, Aacharya RP. Pattern of poisoning cases in Bir Hospital. J Institute Med 2006;28:3-6. |
|29.||Dash SK, Raju AS, Mohanty MK, Patnaik KK, Mohanty S. Sociodemographic profile of poisoning cases. JIAFM 2005;27:133-8. |
|30.||Ecobichon DJ. Toxic effects of pesticides. CASARETT and DOLLs Toxicology: The basic science of poisons 1996;6:763-810. |
|31.||Ellenhorn MJ, Barceloux DG. Chapter 38: Pesticides. Med Toxicol 1988:1069-77. |
|32.||Adlakha A, Philip PJ, Dhar KL. Organophosphorus and carbamate poisoning in Punjab. J Assoc Physicians India 1988;36:210-2. |
|33.||Ganesvaran T, Subramaniam S, Mahadevan K. Suicide in a northern town of Sri Lanka. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1984;69:420-5. |
|34.||Jamil H. Organophosphorus insecticide poisoning. J Pak Med Assoc 1989;39:27-31. |
|35.||Wesseling C, McConnell R, Partanen T, Hogstedt C. Agricultural pesticide use in developing countries: Health effects and research needs. Int J Health Serv 1997;27:273-308. |
|36.||Finkelstein Y, Kushnir A, Raikhlin-Eisenkraft B, Taitelman U. Antidotal therapy of severe acute organophosphate poisoning: A multihospital study. Neurotoxicol Teratol 1989;11:593-6. |
|37.||Turabi A, Danyal A, Hasan S, Durrani A, Ahmed M. Organophosphate poisoning in the urban population; study conducted at national poison control center, Karachi. Biomedica 2008;24:124-9. |
|38.||Singh S, Sharma BK, Wahi PL, Anand BS, Chugh KS. Spectrum of acute poisoning in adults (10 year experience). J Assoc Physicians India 1984;32:561-3. |
|39.||Law S, Liu P. Suicide in China: Unique demographic patterns and relationship to depressive disorder. Curr Psychiatry Rep 2008;10:80-6. |
|40.||Agarwal SB. A clinical, biochemical, neurobehavioral, and sociopsychological study of 190 patients admitted to hospital as a result of acute organophosphorus poisoning. Environ Res 1993;62:63-70. |
|41.||Eddleston M, Singh S, Buckley N. Organophosphorus poisoning (acute). Clin Evid 2005;1744-55. |
|42.||Eddleston M, Buckley NA, Eyer P, Dawson AH. Management of acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning. Lancet 2008;371:597-607. |
|43.||Nalin DR. Epidemic of suicide by malathion poisoning in Guyana. Report of 264 cases. Trop Geogr Med 1973;25:8-14. |
|44.||Mathewson I, Hardy EA. Treatment of malathion poisoning. Experience of two cases in Sarawak. Anaesthesia 1970;25:265-71. |
|45.||Namba T, Nolte CT, Jackrel J, Grob D. Poisoning due to organophosphate insecticides. Acute and chronic manifestations. Am J Med 1971;50:475-92. |
|46.||Langley R, Sumner D. Pesticide mortality in the United States 1979-1998. Vet Hum Toxicol 2002;44:101-5. |
|47.||Bruyndonckx RB, Meulemans AI, Sabbe MB, Kumar AA, Delooz HH. Fatal intentional poisoning cases admitted to the University Hospitals of Leuven, Belgium from 1993 to 1996. Eur J Emerg Med 2002;9:238-43. |
|48.||Srinivas Rao Ch, Venkateswarlu V, Surender T, Eddleston M, Buckley NA. Pesticide poisoning in south India: Opportunities for prevention and improved medical management. Trop Med Int Health 2005;10:581-8. |
|49.||Rajasuriar R, Awang R, Hashim SB, Rahmat HR. Profile of poisoning admissions in Malaysia. Hum Exp Toxicol 2007;26:73-81. |
|50.||McConnell R, Hruska AJ. An epidemic of pesticide poisoning in Nicaragua: Implications for prevention in developing countries. Am J Public Health 1993;83:1559-62. |
|51.||Rosenthal E. The tragedy of Tauccdmarca: A human rights perspective on the pesticide poisoning deaths of 24 children in the Peruvian Andes. Int J Occup Environ Health 2003;9:53-8. |
|52.||Aardema H, Meertens JH, Ligtenberg JJ, Peters-Polman OM, Tulleken JE, Zijlstra JG. Organophosphorus pesticide poisoning: Cases and developments. Neth J Med 2008;66:149-53. |