Annals of African Medicine
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2013  |  Volume : 12  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 90-97

Health problems and associated risk factors in selected urban and rural elderly population groups of South-West Nigeria


Department of Community Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, University College Hospital Campus, Queen Elizabeth Road, Mokola, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Kayode A Abegunde
Department of Community Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, University College Hospital Campus, Queen Elizabeth Road, Mokola, Ibadan, Oyo State
Nigeria
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/1596-3519.112398

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Background: The increasing number of the elderly persons and their attendant health problems has implications on public health programs in developing countries. However, there is limited information on the elderly residing outside major cities in Nigeria. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine and compare prevalent health problems and associated risk factors in the elderly of urban and rural communities in Oyo State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A comparative cross-sectional survey of consenting adults aged 60 years and above in Iseyin (urban) and Ilua (rural) communities of Oyo State in south-west, Nigeria. Using cluster sampling technique, a total of 630 respondents; 316 in the urban and 314 in the rural participated. Information was sought on the respondents' socio-demographic characteristics, life style, self-reported health problems. Anthropometric measurements and clinical examination including blood pressure measurements and visual acuity were conducted. Results: The mean age of urban respondents was 72.2 ± 9.5 years compared with 70.8 ± 8.1 years in the rural. There were more females (61.1%) than males (38.9%) in both the locations. Self-reported health problems in both locations were similar and included reduced sexual fulfillment, musculoskeletal problems such as muscular and low back pain. On clinical examination, the main health problems were visual impairment 58.7% in the urban versus 41.7% in the rural ( P < 0.001). Prevalence of hypertension among urban and rural respondents was 38.3% and 34.7%, respectively ( P = 0.35). Osteoarthritis was significantly higher 8.5% in urban than 3.2% obtained in rural ( P = 0.004v). On multivariate analysis, female gender, increasing body mass index, and low monthly income were significant predictors of hypertension in both locations. Conclusions: Cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, and visual noncommunicable diseases were prevalent in both elderly populations. Social conditions and gender play important role in the health status of the elderly.


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