Annals of African Medicine
Home About AAM Editorial board Ahead of print Current Issue Archives Instructions Subscribe Contact us Search Login 
REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2009  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 147-155

A clinical and epidemiologic update on the interaction between tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus infection in adults


Department of Medicine, Infectious and Tropical Diseases Unit, Bayero University Kano, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, PMB 3452, Kan, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Abdulrazaq G Habib
Infectious and Tropical Diseases Unit, Department of Medicine, Bayero University Kano, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, PMB 3452, Kano
Nigeria
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/1596-3519.57236

Rights and Permissions

Background : Tuberculosis (TB) is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Africa. The interaction between TB and HIV infections is reviewed. Methods : Literature on TB, HIV and their co-infection, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, including Nigeria, is reviewed. Results : Burden of TB is fueled by the HIV epidemic, and clinical presentation of TB may be atypical with co-infection. Recommendations on drugs and timing of antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation are discussed. Use of cotrimoxazole prophylaxis (CPT) in co-infected patients reduces morbidity and mortality, while the principles of TB prevention in HIV infection can be summarized with the three I's: intensive TB case finding and surveillance, isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) and infection-control measures; to these can be added a fourth 'I,' viz., instituting ART. Clinical complications like drug resistance, toxicity and drug interactions; and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) with CPT, IPT and ART are highlighted. Emergence of drug-resistant- and nosocomial- TB in HIV infection poses serious challenges and potential consequences in Africa, and appropriate measures are recommended. Conclusions : Many barriers exist for optimizing the care of the two diseases, but the aim should be strengthening capacities, collaborations, linkages and eventually integrating the services. Interventions for TB prevention in HIV infection should be widely implemented.


[FULL TEXT] [PDF]*
Print this article     Email this article
 Next article
 Previous article
 Table of Contents

 Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
 Citation Manager
 Access Statistics
 Reader Comments
 Email Alert *
 Add to My List *
 * Requires registration (Free)
 

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed5617    
    Printed336    
    Emailed5    
    PDF Downloaded750    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 13    

Recommend this journal